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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
All hypothalamic and anterior pituitary hormones are what type of hormones?
peptide
Which hormones bind to G protein coupled receptors that stimulate or suppress cAMP/PKA signal transduction pathway? (6)
GHRH, CRH, GNRH, ACTH, FSH, LH
Which hormone binds to G protein coupled receptors that exert effects on potassium channels?
somatostatin
(to inhibit GH, TH secretion)
Which hormone binds to G protein coupled receptors to increase intracellular calcium?
TRH
(thyrotropin releasing hormone)
Which hormones have receptors that are single membrane-spanning peptides that activate the tyrosine kinase, JAK2, that leads to activation of signaling pathways that regulate gene induction? (2)
GH
prolactin
What is growth hormone's target organ?
liver
What does growth hormone cause the release of? (2)
insulin-like growth factors
somatomedins
What is the synthetic analog of GHRH?
Sermorelin (Geref)
What is the diagnostic use of GHRH (its analog)?
test pituitary GH secretory capacity in short children (see if short stature is from low GH)
Somatostatin inhibits release of growth hormone, thyroid hormone and what other hormones? (3)
glucagon
insulin
gastrin
What is the synthetic analog of somatostatin?
Octreotide (Sandostatin)
What is the therapeutic use of somatostatin (its analog)?
acromegaly (too much GH in adults)
glucagonoma
How does GH produce growth? (3)
bone growth via IGFs from liver
lipolysis in adipose tissue
growth of skeletal muscles
What is the mechanism of somatotropin injectable suspension?
causes longitudinal bone growth via IGFs
Hypoglycemic seizures in newborns can cause deficiency of which hormone?
GH
Treatment of adults with GH deficiency causes what? (3)
increased lean body mass
increased bone density
decreased fat mass
CRH stimulates release of what from the pituitary? (2)
ACTH
beta-endorphin
What is CRH used to diagnose?
Cushing's disease
(to see if pituitary is producing ACTH)
Where in the hypothalamus is GnRH produced?
arcuate nucleus
GnRH stimulates the pituitary to release which hormones?
LH
FSH
What is the diagnostic use of GnRH?
determine LH response in hypogonadotropic adolescent with delayed pubery
What are the therapeutic uses of GnRH?
stimulation of pituitary function for infertility caused by hypothalamic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in both sexes
Continuous GnRH analog administration is used to treat what? (3)
prostate cancer, uterine fibroids, endometriosis
What is a major side effect of leuprolide, nafarelin, and goserlin in women?
osteoporosis and elevated cholesterol
What effects are seen in men from treatment of leuprolide and goserline?
increased serum testosterone
hot flashes
sweats
What is a GnRH antagonist?
Cetrolix
What are GnRH antagonists used therapeutically for?
endometriosis
uterine fibroids
What type of macromolecules are FSH and LH?
glycoprotein
What processes are stimulated in women by FSH? (2)
In men? (1)
women - gametogenesis and follicular development
men - spermatogenesis
True or False - LH or FSH can be used alone or together for infertility
False - FSH must be given with LH
Overstimulation of the ovary can lead to what? (2)
ovarian enlargement
multiple births
What does LH do for men?
For women?
men - testosterone production
women - follicular development, induce ovulation
What is used instead of LH therapeutically?
human chorionic gonadotropin
What does human chorionic gonadotropin do in women?
stimulates ovarian corpus luteum to produce progesterone
LH and FSH are used to induce ovulation in women with what disorder?
hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
Which hormone is responsible for lactation?
prolactin
Which hormone inhibits prolactin release from the pituitary?
dopamine
What are the posterior pituitary hormones?
ADH (vasopressin)
oxytocin
Which hormone elicits milk ejection?
oxytocin
Which hormone is used to initiate labor?
oxytocin
ADH (vasopressin) is released in response to higher/lower BP?
lower
What disease state is vasopressin used to treat?
diabetes insipidus
What are the main effects of vasopressin in the body?
vascular smooth muscle vasoconstriction
antidiuresis by increasing water permeability and resorption
True or False - Desmopressin is a potent vasoconstrictor and antidiuretic
False - Desmopressin has minimal smooth muscle effects, but is a potent antidiuretic