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26 Cards in this Set

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Which hormone supports maturation of the endometrium?
estrogen
Which hormone provides signals to the hypothalamus and pituitary that helps maintain the menstrual cycle?
estrogen
What is the major form of estrogen produced by the body?
estradiol
What do estrogens bind to in the bloodstream?
alpha2-globulin
(sex hormone binding globulin, SHBG)
In which tissue is estradiol converted to estrone and estriol?
liver and other tissues
How are estrogen-induced calcium influx into granulosa cells and increased uterine blood flow mediated?
estrogen INTRAcellular signaling pathways (not nuclear response elements)
What are three metabolic and cardiovascular effects of estrogens? (3)
maintenance of blood vessels
decreased bone resorption
adipose tissue production
What is the primary indication for estrogen hormone therapy in menopausal women?
osteoporosis
What is progesterone's effect on body fat?
favors fat deposition
(stimulates lipoprotein lipase)
What is progesterone's effect on insulin levels and glycogen?
increases basal insulin
promotes glycogen storage
Does progesterone increase or decrease sodium reabsorption?
increases reabsorption of sodium (binds to mineralocorticoid receptors of renal tubule)
Where do oral contraceptives act? (what part of the body)
pituitary gland
(inhibit release of LH, FSH)
How do oral contraceptives decrease the likelihood of implantation? (2)
changes in cervical mucus and endometrium
affect motility of uterine tubes
What drug is an antagonist of progesterone receptors and is effective when given with prostaglandins?
mifeprisone (RU 486)
What is the mechanism of mifepristone (RU 486)
progesterone receptor antagonist (used with prostaglandins)
Which drugs (3) are nonsteroidal competitive partial agonist inhibitors of estradiol used to help treat breast cancer?
tamoxifen
toremifene
raloxifene
What is the primary indication for danazol?
endometriosis
Which drug is a partial estrogen agonist that stimulates ovulation in women with ovulatory dysfunction?
clomiphene
Which hormone promotes gametogensis in the testes?
FSH from the pituitary
Which cells produce testosterone?
Leydig cells (interstitial cells)
Which cells secrete several active proteins in the testes, including inhibin and activin?
Sertoli cells
Which form of testosterone binds nuclear receptors with the highest affinity and gives the most effects?
dihydrotestosterone
What is ketoconazole's mechanism of action?
steroid synthesis inhibitor
What is the mechanism of finasteride?
inhibits 5alpha reductase
(conversion of testosterone to DHT)
What is the mechanism of flutamide?
androgen receptor antagonist
What are the four drugs/treatments for chemical contraception in men?
IM injection of testosterone weekly
Gossypol, a cottonseed derivative
Adjudin - blocks production of sperm
Silodosin - alpha1 antagonist with high selectivity for urogenital system that inhibits ejaculation, not orgasm