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160 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When did Modern Pharmacology Began
in Early 1800s
Where did Chemists in teh 1800 find the drugs/ products they were creating?
Chemists isolated pharmacological substances from natural substances
What were the 2 ways they tested/studied effect of what they had created?
Effects on animals studied
Early researchers used themselves as test subjects
When was Pharmacology Recognized as Distinct Discipline?
First department of pharmacology established at Estonia in 1847
Who is the Father of American pharmacology?
John Jacob Abel
What did John Jacob Abel establish?
Founded first pharmacology department in United States at University of Michigan in 1890
In the Twentieth Century to Present what are 4 important advancements for pharmacologists?
-Drugs synthesized in laboratory
-Drugs tested for relatively short time
-Understanding increased of how drugs produce their effects
-Focus is on improvements in quality of life

(slide 8)
(page 3)
Define Pharmacology
Simply defined, from the Greek, as the “study of medicine”
Pharmacology is an expansive subject encompassing what 3 factors?
-How drugs are administered
-Where drugs travel in the body
-Responses drugs produce
4 Interrelated Subject Areas to pharmacology are?
(Hint 3 were nursing prereqs)
-Anatomy and physiology

(slide 10)
(page 3)
Aprox. how many drugs are currently available?
(more than) 10,000 drugs currently available
Each drug has its own characteristics
What are they? (there are 4)
-Therapeutic applications
-Side effects
-Mechanisms of action
Does every disease have its own drug?
No-Many drugs prescribed for more than one disease
-most produce multiple effects on the body.
Drugs elicit different responses depending on 5 individual patient factors. What are they?
-Body mass
-Health status
Why Knowledge of pharmacology is essential to the nursing profession?
Who does it apply to?
-Nurses are health care providers most often directly involved in patient care
--Applies to nurses in all settings, from hospital to home care
-Study of pharmacology is a long, challenging, and continual process
Where are drugs Synthesized?
in a laboratory
What is the study of therapeutics?
Therapeutics is the BRANCH of medicine concerned with the prevention of disease and treatment of suffering
What is Pharmacotherapy AKA Pharmacotherapeutics?
is the APPLICATION of drugs for the purpose of diease prevention and the treatment of suffering
Define what a drug is?
a chemical agent capable of Produce biological responses in the body.
A desirable biological responses in the body is called?
An undesirable biological responses in the body is called ?
adverse reaction
After a drug is administered, it is called ?
a medication
What are Biologics
are agents naturally produced in animal cells, by microorganisms, or by the body itself
Complementary and alternative therapies are also considered therapeutic approaches.
(considered unconventional)

What do they involve?
-Natural plant extracts, herbs, vitamins, minerals, dietary supplements.
-other therapy such as acupuncture, hypnosis, biofeedback, massage
what is the meaning of OTC?
over the counter
What might be some advantages of over the counter medications (OTC’s)?
-No health-care provider appointment required
-Often less expensive than prescription drugs
What might be some disadvantages of over the counter medications (OTC’s)?
-Client may choose wrong drug
-Client may not know reactions or interactions
-Ineffective treatment may result in progression of disease
Why was there a need for more regulatory control of biologics and drugs?

Give example.
-Few standards or guidelines to protect the public
--Some drugs contained hazardous levels of
---Dangerous substances, i.e. arsenic, lead, mercury
---Addictive substances, i.e. morphine, cocaine,
-The use of some medications lead to undesired effects and death
In the early days of pharmagology The first standard Drug References commonly used by pharmacists was ?
the formulary
What was the formulary?
list of drugs and drug recipes
In 1820 the first comprehensive publication of drug standards was established.

What is it known as? and what is it for?
pharmacopoeia -is a medical reference summarizing standards of drug purity, strength, and directions for synthesis
Newer drug guidelines of the USP require the USP label be changed to include many items that the consumer never had knowledge of.

Name 2 things that can be found.
-exact amounts of ingredients
What federal agency is now in control of the production and administration of medications?
Officially established in 1988
Agency of US Department of Health and Human Services
What does FDA mean?
Food and Drug Administration
the FDA is an Agency of ?
the US Department of Health and Human Services
What dose CDER mean?
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
What is CDER a branch of?
What is the basic job of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research ?
-Branch of FDA

-Determines safety and efficacy of drugs
-Pharmaceutical laboratories must solicit approval from FDA before marketing a drug
What does CBER stand for?
Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research
What is CBER a branch of?
What is the basic job of the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research
What 1986 act are they known for?
-Branch of FDA
-Regulates use of biologics (serums, vaccines, and blood products)
-1986 Childhood Vaccine Act result of CBER work
What does CFSAN stand for?
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
What is CFSAN a branch of?

What do they oversee?
-Branch of FDA
-Oversees herbal and dietary products
What does CSFAN enforce?
Enforces 1994 Dietary and Supplemental Health and Education Act
What does the 1994 Dietary and Supplemental Health and Education Act regulate?
-Regulation not as close as Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
-Herbal and Dietary supplements can be marketed without prior approval from FDA
The American system of drug approval process has four steps/phases for Therapeutic and Biologic Drugs.

What are they?
1-Preclinical investigation
2-Clinical investigation
3-Review of new drug application (NDA)
4-Post-marketing surveillance
---Amount of time for approval varies
Preclinical Investigation involves?
-Involves laboratory research
-Tests done on cells and animals
-Determines drug-dose range
-Examines adverse effects
-Results are always considered inconclusive
Clinical Investigation involves?
-Takes place in takes in three different stages termed clinical phase trials
-Longest part of approval process
-Evaluates human benefits
-Tests on healthy humans first, then on those with the target ailment
Review of New Drug Application (NDA) involves?
-If results of clinical investigation are positive, even if precautions are noted, a New Drug Application is next step
-NDA is third step of drug approval process
-Average review time 17–24 months
-Drug approved: process continues
-Drug rejected: process suspended
How long does NDA take?
can be massively long and FDA review can take several years
What is the Pharmaceutical manufacturer expenses
creating and marketing a new drug can be in the millions of dollars
what is the Core FDA goal?
to make sure drugs are safe for public
why was the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, 1992 established?
In 1990s, delays in process due to
Outdated guidelines
Insufficient staff
Poor communication
What did the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, 1992 establish?
-Established on five-year trial basis
-Drug and biologic manufacturers provide drug-user fee
-FDA hired more employees
-FDA restructured its organization
What was the result of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, 1992 ?
Double the number of drugs approved
Some review times cut by half
Why is it important for Nurses to constantly review the literature for drugs that have been recalled or reported dangerous?
-Researchers recently completed a review of all adverse drug events reported to the FDA since 2006
--Clinicians found 10 potential fatal drugs
Why do we need to know about the Canadian drug approval process?
Our patients go there to purchase medications
Why do Our patients go to Canada to purchase medications?
-Cheaper cost for same drug
-Some drugs may be purchased as OTC’s
is the Canadian drug quality the same as the American drugs?
-There are Similarities Between Drug-Approval Processes but not exactly the same process.
-however any drug that does not comply with standards established by recognized pharmacopoeias and formularies in the United States, Europe,Britain or france can not be labled, packaged, sold or advertised in Canada.
List of drugs and drug recipes
The degree to which a drug or other substance becomes available to the target tissue after administration.
Chemical Name
Convey's clear and concise meaning about nature of drug, difficult to remember.
Controlled Substance
Drug whose use is restricted by the controlled substance act
Physical dependence- altered physical condition caused by adaption of the nervous system to repeated drug use.
Generic Name
Less complicated, easier to remember, only one generic name for each drug.
Trade name
short and easy to remember. Product or brand name.
Mechanism of Action
A pharmacologically active substance produces an effect on a living organism
When drug is no longer available and individual experiences physical signs of discomfort.
A preparation of a weakened or killed pathogen
Allergic Reaction
Is a required hyper-response of the body defenses to a foreign substance the allergen.
A severe type of allergic reaction that involves the massive, systemic release of histamine and other chemical mediators of inflammation that can lead to life threatening shock.
Buccal Route
Oral cavity, between gum and cheek
Enteral Route
given orally swallowed
Enteric coated
waxy coating enables them to resist acidity, designed to dissolve in small intestine.
Injected and administered into the dermal layer of the skin, contains more blood vessels
Delivers medication into specific muscles, rich blood supply and move quickly into blood vessels
Medications and fluids administered directly into blood stream and are immediately available for body to use
Provide rapid absorption, injected into fat layer
routes other then oral or tropical, intradermal, intravenous etc.
Sublingual route
Medication placed under tongue and absorbed slowly
Sustained release
Tablets or capsules are designed to dissolve slowly
Per Request
Is the process involving movement of a substance from its site of administration, across the body membranes to circulating fluids
Blood-brain barrier
A physiological mechanism that alters the permeability of brain capillaries, so that some substances, such as certain drugs, are prevented from entering brain tissue, while other substances are allowed to enter freely.
Attraction for certain medications
Involves the transport of pharmacologic agents throughout the body. Main factor amount of blood flow to body tissue
The act or process of discharging waste matter from the blood, tissues, or organs.
First Pass Effect
Is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of lost drug during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall.
Is a process of chemically converting a drug to a form that is usually more easily removed from the body Liver primary site of metabolism.
Study of drug movement throughout the body
Loading Dose
Is a higher amount of drug often given only once to prime the bloodstream.
Maintenance Dose
Are given to keep the plasma drug concentration in therapeutic range.
Plasma half-life
The length of time required for the plasma concentration of a medication to decrease by one half after administration. How long it take the drug to leave your body.
Have no pharmacologic activity unless they are first metabolized to their active form by the body
Therapeutic Range
Helpful range of drug dosage between minimum effective range and toxic concentration
Agonists often mimic the action of a naturally occurring substance
Prevents a certain substance from acting
Is the magnitude of maximal response that can be produced from a particular drug
Idiosyncratic Response
Unpredictable and unexplained drug reactions
The study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs on the body or on microorganisms or parasites within or on the body and the mechanisms of drug action and the relationship between drug concentration and effect
Area of pharmacology that examines the role of heredity in drug response
How strong the drug is at a specific dose
Therapeutic Index
Ratio of lethal dose over effective dose
Primary neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system, also present at somatic neuromuscular junctions and at sympathetic preganglionic nerves
Adrenergic Antagonist
Drug that blocks the actions of the sympathetic nervous system
Relating to nerves that release norepinephrine or epinephrine
Drug that blocks the action of the parasympathetic nervous system
Beta receptor
Type of sub-receptors found in the sympathetic nervous system
Class of agents secreted in response to stress that includes epinephrine, norephrine and dopamine
relating to nerves that release acetylcholine
Type of cholinergic receptor found in smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
Type of cholinergic receptor found in ganglia of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
Primary neurotransmiter in the sympathetic nervous system
Drug that mimics the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system
Drug that stimulates or mimics the sympathetic nervous system
Neurotransmitter in the CNS
Drug used to reduce or eliminate pain
sensory cue such as bright lights, smells, or tastes, that precedes a migraine
Endogenous opioids
Chemicals produced naturally within the body that decreases or eliminate pain; they closely resemble the actions of morphine
Kappa Receptor
Type of opioid receptor
Mu Receptor
Type of opioid receptor
Natural or synthetic drug related to morphine; may be used as a boarder legal term referring to hallucinogens, CNS stimulants, marijuana, and other illegal drugs
Neuropathic pain
Caused from injury to nerves and typically described as burning, shooting, or numb pain
Receptor connected with nerves that receive and transmit pain signals to the spinal cord and brain
Substance closely related to morphine extracted from the poppy plant
Substance obtained from the unripe seeds of the poppy plant ; natural or synthetic morphine like substance
Loss of apatite
State of apprehension and autonomic nervous system activation resulting from exposure to nonspecific or unknown cause
Used to treat anxiety disorders
Drug that causes sleep
Inability to fall asleep or stay asleep
Substance that depresses the CNS to cause drowsiness or sleep
Sedative hypnotic
Drug with the inability to produce calming effect at lower doses and to induce sleep a higher doses
Old term sometimes used to describe a drug that produces a calm or tranquil feeling
Disorder typically diagnosed in childhood and adolescence characterized by hyperactivity as well as attention, organization and behavior control issues
Disorder characterized by depressed mood, lack of energy, sleep disturbances, abnormal eating patterns, and feelings of despair, guilt, and misery.
A severe anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to any event that results in psychological trauma.
Bipolar Disorder
Syndrome characterized by extreme and opposite moods, such as euphoria and depression
Electroconvulsive - therapy treatment used for serious and life threatening mood disorders in patients who are unresponsive to pharmacology
MAOI Inhibitros
Monoamine oxiase inhibitor - drug inhibiting monoamine oxidase an enzyme that terminates the actions of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine and serotonin
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor- drug that selectively inhibits the reuptake of serotonin into nerve terminals; used mostly for depression
Serotonin Syndrome
set of signs and symptoms associated with over-medication with antidepressants that includes altered mental status, fever, sweating, and lack of muscular coordination
Form of the amino acid tyrosine that is found in foods such as cheese, beer, wine, and yeast products
Inability to remain still, constantly moving
False ideas and beliefs not founded in reality
Severe muscle spasms particularly of the back, neck, tongue and face; characterized by abnormal tension starting in one area of the body and progressing to other areas
Extrapyramidal side effects
Symptoms of acute distonia, akathisia, Parkinsonism, and tardive dyskinesia often caused by antipsychotic drugs
Seeing, hearing, or feeling something that is not real
Having an extreme suspicion and delusion that one is being followed and that others are trying to inflict harm
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Potentially fatal condition caused by certain antipsychotic medications characterized by an extremely high body temperature, drowsiness, changing BP, irregular heartache, and muscle rigidity
Having tremor, muscle rigidity, stopped posture, and shuffling gait.
Psychosis characterized by abnormal thoughts and thought process, withdrawal from other people and the outside environment, apparent preoccupation with ones mental status
Tardive dyskinesia
Unusual tongue and facial movements
difficulty initiating movement and controlling fine muscle movements
Chemical release by cells during inflammation that produces pain and side effects similar to those of histamine
Alzheimer’s Disease
Most common dementia characterized by loss of memory, delusions, hallucinations, confusion, and loss of judgement
degenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss, confusion, and the inability to think or communicate effectively
Muscle Spasms
Involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscle, which becomes tightened, develop a fixed pattern of resistance, and result in a diminished level of functioning.
Inability of opposing muscle group to move in a coordinated manor
Clonic Spasm
Multiple, rapidly repeated muscular contractions
Tonic Spasm
Singular prolonged muscular spasm
fearful feeling attached to situation of objects such as snakes, spiders, crowds, or heights