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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Know what to do when barbiturates (all anesthetic agents for that matter) cause respiratory arrest.
Secure airway, and ventilate until respiration returns
What are the typical hemodynamic effects of a thiopental induction?
The “typical” hemodynamic response following thiobarbiturate induction is a small decrease in mean arterial pressure, mildly decreased cardiac output, increase in systemic vascular resistance, and a increase in heart rate.
What type of arrhythmia is commonly associated with the thiobarbiturates?
ventricular bigeminal rhythm
Understand why an animal that has been receiving chronic phenobarbital treatment for seizures is likely to recover more quickly from pentobarbital anesthesia, but not from a one time bolus administration of thiopental.
Pentobarb. and Pheno. are mainly removed by hepatic clearance, long term administration leads to inc. mixed oxidase reasctions, thiopental is cleared by redistribution therefor notaffected fy inc enzyme activity
What is “dosing to effect” and why it is better than giving the calculated dose when administering anesthetic drugs (Hint: what is the maximum therapeutic and minimum lethal dose of pentobarbital?)
Dosing to effect is IV administration with a portion of the calculated dose given and then the rest slowly injected until the desired affect is reached
What happens when thiopental is injected perivascularly?
High pH leads to perivascular necrosis
Why is recovery slower after four doses of thiopental than after one?
Repeated doses results in alll thesites for redistribution being filled so removal is limited to hepatic clearance of the drug
List 4 things which would tend to decrease the amount of thiopental necessary for induction
Induction dose depends upon concurrent disease, acid-base status, plasma albumin concentration, and coadministration of other drugs
What type of dog is thiopental administration not recommended in because of delayed recoveries?
What is the carrier mixture for propofol and why does it say on the label to discard unused propofol after 6 hours?
emulsion of 10% soybean oil, 2.25% glycerol, and 1.2% egg phosphatide, a perfect growth medium for bacteria.
What are the typical cardiovascular and respiratory effects of propofol (Hint: if you know about thiopental you know many of them already.)
apnea and respiratory depression, Mild respiratory acidosis, dose dependent depression of myocardial contractility, reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP)
What is the major route of biotransformation of propofol in the dog and what is different about it inthe cat?
The major form is by Glucoronidation, which is limited in the cat
Why is ketamine used for cat spays and neuters over intravenous drugs such as thiopental in a typical veterinary practice?
Ketamine may be given IM whichis often easier than IV, and when given by this route has a prolonged duration (25-40 min)
What effect does ketamine have on ICP, CBF and CMRO2? How is this different from thiopental and propofol?
Ket. may cause an increase in all, propofol decreases all
What characteristic breathing pattern is seen with ketamine administration?
Apneustic breathing
Antimuscarinic drugs are usually given with the premedication drugs to increase heart rate or offset vagally induced bradycardia. If ketamine is a sympathomimetic and typically increases heart rate on its own, what is the rational for giving an antimuscarinic?
An antimuscarinic is used to reduce salivary flow
What are the components of Telazol and what ratio are they present in?
tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl), in a 1:1 ratio
What effect does etomidate have on myocardial contractility?
Does not cause direct depression
What effect does etomidate have on corticosteroid synthesis?
decreased steroid synth. (though may be offset by production due to stress)
Why is chloral hydrate’s onset of effect typically delayed 5-10 minutes?
This is a prodrug which must be metabolized