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47 Cards in this Set

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Penicillins - Penicillin, Amoxicillin/Augmentin
Destroys bacteria by weakening bacterial cell wall.
Used for gram + cocci (e.g. pneumonia & meningitis, endocarditis & pharyngitis). Used for Syphilis caused by spirochete.
Allergies? Monitor kidney fx & electrolytes. Oral contraceptives efficacy decreased. Take with a full glass of water 1 hr ac or 2 hrs after meals. Report allergic reactions. ck kidney fx.
Cephalosporins - Keflex & Rocephin
Destroys bacterial cell walls causing destruction of micro-organisms. Effective against gram - organisms and anerobes. Able to reach CSF. Bactericidal with high therapeutic index to treat UTI's, Postop and pelvic Infections & meningitis.
Allergies? Monitor PT & PTT. Rotate inj. sites & admin. slowly. If allergic to Penicillins do not give. If used with meds that promote bleeding use caution. Avoid alcohol. Complete Rx. Take PO w/ food and store in refridgerator. Give Vit. K if bleeding (PTT = 60-80 secs.) ck kidney fx.
Monobactams - Vancomycin
destroy bacterial cell walls causing destruction of micro-organisms.
Ototoxicity can occur. Kidney Fx. Ck blood levels (30 - 40 micrograms/mL).
Bacteriostatic Inhibitors - Erythromycin, clindamycin, azithromycin (Zithromax) & Biaxin
Slows the growth of micro-organisms by inhibiting protein synthesis. At high doses can be bactericidal. Treats infections in pts with Penicillin allergy. Used to treat Legionnaires', Whooping cough & Diptheria. Chlamydia. Prevents recurrance of rheumatic fever & endocarditis.
Antihistamines, anticonvulsants & anticoagulants cause toxicity. Admin on an empty stomach w/ full glass of water. Complete Rx.
Aminoglycosides - Gentamicin
bactericidal disrupts protein synthesis. Used to kill gram - bacilli. Used for amebiasis and tapeworms.
Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity may occur. Penicillin inactivates this Rx. W/ renal impairment reduce dose. Levels should be monitor before every dose. Ck Kidney Fx.
Sulfonamides - Bactrim
Inhibit bacterial growth by preventing the synthesis of folic acid. This is essential in prod. of DNA, RNA and proteins. Used for UTI's
Hypersensitivity reaction may occur. Monitor for blood dyscrasias (e.g. anemia) and kernicterus (e.g. jaundice) Avoid use during pregnancy and lactation. Use cautiously w/ renal dysfx (creatinine <15 mL/min). Coumadin, Dilantin and Sulfa PO antidiabetics increase effects and inhibit metabolism. Take on an empty stomach with a full glass of water. Complete Rx. Pentamidine given for Sulfa allergy.
Antimycobacterial (Antituberculosis) - INH
Used for mycobacteria. Inhibits growth by preventing synthesis of mycolic acid in cell wall. Used for TB.
Peripheral nueropathy & hepatotoxicity may occur. It interferes with metabolism of Dilantin (monitor). Avoid alcohol and monitor liver Fx tests. Take on an empty stomach 1 hr ac or 2 hrs after meals. If GI discomfort take with meals. Contraindicated w/ liver dz.
Antiviral - Acyclovir & Ganciclovir
prevents reprod. of viral DNA. Used for Herpes, Varicella (Shingles) and Cytomegalovirus & CMV retinitis.
Nephrotoxicitiy may occur. Monitor CBC and platelets. Avoid pregnancy during therapy and 90 days after. If client has neutropenia do not use. Use cautiously w/ renal impairment, dehydration and clients taking toxic meds. Use cautiosly w/ low WBC and platelet counts. DO NOT admin IV bolus! Admin slowly (1hr or longer). Does not cure virus only S/S. Keep lesions dry. Refrain from sexual contact when lesions are present. Use protection at all times. Complete Rx.
Fluoroquinolones - Cipro
Bactericidal. Broad spectrum. Resp., UTI, GI tract, bone, joints, skin and soft tissue infections. Prevention of anthrax.
Achilles tendon rupture. Monitor and no excercise. Antacids, iron salts & dairy prod. decrease absorption. Theophylline & Coumadin levels increase. PO & IV. W/ renal dysfx dcrease dose. IV cipro admin. slowly (1 hr). For inhalation of anthrax, admin. q12h for 2 mnths. Complete Rx.
Antiprotozoals - Flagyl
Broad spectrum w/ bactericidal. Used for protozoal infections. Preop prophylaxis. Used to treat H. pylori w/ PUD in combo with tetracycline and bismuth salicylate.
Metallic taste and darkening of urine may occur. Use cautiously w/ renal dysfx. Avoid use during pregnancy. Avoid alcohol. Complete Rx.
Immunosuppressants - cyclosporine, prednisone, Imuran
act on helper T to suppress prod. of immune response components. Used for autoimmune disorders and prevent organ rejection in transplant clients (lifelong).
Avoid use during pregnancy. Monitor liver fx, BUN, creatinine and I&O's. W/ glucocorticoids osteoporosis can occur. When D/c slowly stop meds. W/ Imuran monitor CBC. Clyclosporin contraindicated w/ pregnancy, live virus vaccinations, and recent contact or infection w/ chickenpox or shingles. Erythromycin, Amphotericin B and grapefruit juice can cause toxicity. Glucocorticoids contraindicated w/ fungal infections and live virus vaccines. They counteract the effects of insulin and hypoglycemics. Admin. initial dose over 2 - 6 hrs. Monitor hypersensitivity rxs (stay 30 mins after admin). Mix Cyclosporin w/ milk or OJ.
Antihistamines - Benadryl, Phenergan, Claritin, Zyrtec, Allegra, and Clarinex
blocks histamine release in s. blood vessels, capillaries, and nerves during allergic rx. Used for mild allergic rxs, anaphylaxis, motion sickness and insomnia.
Contrindicated during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Use cautiously w/ asthma, urinary retention, open angle glaucoma, hypertension and prostate hypertrophy. Avoid alcohol and CNS depressants.
Chemotherapy Agents - Methotrexate, Tamoxifen & Lupron
destroy CA cells by preventing the replication of DNA. Used to treat a variety of CA.
Monitor CBC, H&H and assess for bruising and bleeding. Alopecia may occur.
NSAIDS - aspirin, Celebrex, ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), and Naproxen (Naprosyn)
decreases inflammation, pain and fever. Decreases platelet aggregation. Use in inflam. suppression, analgesia for mild to moderate pain, fever reducer, dysmenorrhea and platelet aggregation.
GI discomfort, Renal dysfx, salicylism (stop!), and Reye syndrome (given when chickenpox or influenza present). Aspirin contraindicated w/ PUD, Bleeding disorders, hypersensitivity, pregnancy and Children w/ chicken pox or influenza. Use cautiously w/ older adults, cigarette smoking, H. pylori, hypovolemia, hay fever, chronic urticaria (hives) and Hx of alcoholism. Warfarin, glucocorticoids and alcohol increase the risk of bleeding. Ibuprofen decreases antiplatelet effects. Stop taking 1 wk ac Sx or birth. Take w/ food, milk or full glass of water. DO not chew or crush enteric coated tabs. Clients unable to tolerate Aspirin Rx'd Celebrex.
Acetaminophen - Tylenol
Slows the prod. of prostaglandins. Used to relieve pain and reduce fever.
Do not drink alcohol or use Warfarin while using this Rx. Keep record of daily intake. Mucomyst is the antidote for toxicity.
Opioid Agonists - Morphine Sulfate, Demerol, Codeine, and Oxycodone (oxyContin)
Act on Mu receptors and Kappa receptors. Activation of Mu receptors produces analgesia, resp. depression, euphoria and sedation, whereas Kappa receptors activation produces analgesia, sedationa nd decreased GI motility. Used for moderate to severe pain, sedation, red. of bowel motility and Codeine: cough suppression.
Resp. depression, sedation and opioid overdose may occur. Monitor vitals. Avoid use of other CNS depressants and hazardous activities. Use Narcan if overdose occurs. Contraindicated w/ Bilary tract Sx and premature infants. Use cautiously w/ resp. issues and head injuries, Infants & older adults, obese pts and IBD. W/ Demerol overuse can lead to seizures and neurotoxicity.
Opioid Antagonists - Naloxone (Narcan)
Interfere with the Ax of opioids by competeing w/ receptors. They have no effect in the absence of opioids. Used for Opioid overdose resp. depression in infants.
Tachycardia and tachypnea may occur. Contraindicated with hypersensitivity, opioid dependency and Pregnancy. Should be admin. IV, IM or SC not PO.
Cholinesterase Inhibitors - Neostigmine
Prevents the enzyme cholinesterase from inactivating acetylcholine thereby increasing the amount of ACh available to receptor sites. Used for increased muscle strenght by increasing ACh effects in myasthenia gravis.
Excessive muscarine stimulation and cholinergic crisis can occur. Treat with Atropine and Give resp. support. Contraindicated with pregnancy, obstruction of GI and GU systems. Used cautiously with siezures, hyperthyroidism, PUD, asthma, bradycardia and hypotension. Atropine counteracts effetcs. Start at low dose and titrate until desired effect. Wear medical alert bracelet. Keep record.
Antiepileptics - phenobarbital, Dilantin (phenytoin), Valium (diazepam), Ativan (lorazepam), Tegretol (carbamazepine), Zarontin, Depakote (Valproic Acid) and Neurontin (gabapentin)
Controls seizure disorders. Used for generalized seizures, partial seizures, and complete eradication of seizure activity.
Dilantin: gingival hyperplasia. Tegretol: blood dyscrasias. Valium: Resp. Depression. All are contraindicated during pregnancy. No grapefruit juice!
Mood Stabilizers - Depakote & Tegretol
Produces neurochemical changes in the brain and will show evidence of decrease in neuronal atrophy and/or increase in neuronal growth. Used for Bipolar disorder, control episodes of acute amnia, and helps to prevent the return of mania or depression. Also, alcoholism, bulimia and schizophrenia.
Diarrhea may occur, as well as, tremors, polyuria, renal toxicity, goiter and hypothyroidism. Can cause teratogenesis, preg. risk D. Avoid breatfeeding while using. Use cautiously in pts w/ renal dyfx, heart dz, N+ depletion and dehydration. Use of diuretics & NSAIDS can lead to toxicity. Monitor lithium levels, Maintain adequate Na+/water intake. Monitor for toxicity.
Sedative Hypnotic Meds - Benzodiazepines: Diazepam (valium), Xanax and Ativan
Enhances the ax of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in the CNS. Used to treat: anxiety, seizures, insomnia, muscle spasms, alcohol w/drawl, panic disorder, and induction of anesthesia.
CNS depression, amnesia, paradoxical response, resp. depression, teratogenesis; preg. risk D, and acute & oral toxicity can occur. Do not give to pts w/ sleep apnea or resp. depression and use cautiously in pts w/ substance abuse. Avoid hazardous activities and fall precautions. Avoid abrupt d/c, must be tapered. Admin. w/ meals.
CNS stimulants - Ritalin, amphetamin or Caffeine
Releases norepinephrine & dopamine into the CNS and inhibits the reuptake of noreepinephrine and dopamine in CNS. Used for ADHD, narcolepsy, obesity and weight reduction.
CNS stimulation, weight loss & cardio. effects may occur. Preg. risk C. Use cautiously w/ hyperthyroidism, heart dz, glaucoma, hx of drug abuse, and MAOI's. Dilantin, Coumadin and phenobarbital may cause toxicity. Avoid OTC's whil eusing. Do not chew or crush tabs. Admin. on a reg. schedule.
Adrenergic Agonists - Epinephrine (adrenaline) & Dopamine (Intropine)
Cannot be taken PO, does not croos the blood-brain barrier and duration of ax is short.
Alpha1 activates skin, viscera, and mucous membranes, and veins lead to vasoconstrictions.
Beta1 stimulates the heart & kidneys (release renin).
Beta2 stimulates heart, lungs, and skeletal muscles leading to vasodilation.
Dopamine dilates renal vessels.
Hypertension can occur b/c of vasconstriction. Dysrhythmias can occur from heart stimulation. Necrosis from extravasation. Preg. risk C. Cantraindicated w/ tachydysrhythmias and V. Fib. Use cautiously w/ hyperthyroidism, angina, hx of MI, hypertension and DM. Monitor ECG, dosages of other meds. Admin. IV by cont. infusion. Use IV pump. Dosage titrated. Treat infiltration w/ phentolamine. Monitor for angina.
Centrally acting Alpha2 Agonists - Catapress
decreases sympathetc outflow. Results in decrease in NE. Bradycardia results and decreased C/O. Vasodilation occurs, decreasing BP. Trats hypertension & CA pain.
Drowsiness and sedation, dry mouth abd rebound hypertension can occur. Preg. risk C - avoid use. antidepressants can counteract drug effects. Take @ bedtime to decrease incidence of sleepiness. Patches changed q7days.
Beta Adrenergic Blockers (BB) - Lopressor (Metoprolol) and Indural (Propranolol) & Atenolol
BB1 blockade in myocardium and in the electrical conduction system of the heart, decreasing HR, myocardial contractility and rate of conduction through AV node. Used for Angina, HTN, dysrhythmias, MI & HF. Also, hyperthyroidism, migraines, stage fright and glaucoma.
BB1 S/E: Bradycardia, decreased C/O, AV Block, Orthostatic hypotension, Rebound myocardium excitation. BB2 S/E: bronchoconstriction and inhibited glycogenolysis. Contraindicated w/ AV Block and sinus bradycardia, asthma, bronchospasm and HF. BB1: CCB & antiHTN meds. intensify effects. BB2: Insulin w/ BB prevents glycogenolysis. Do not disc. w/o consult. Avoid sudden changes in position, Do not crush or chew tabs, and SM BP & HR daily.
ACE Inhibitors - Captopril ( Capoten), Monopril, and Altace.
Blockage of production of angiotensin II resulting in vasodilation and excretion of sodium and water and retention of K+. Used for HF, HTN, MI, Nephropathy, and pts at risk for a cardio event (Altace - prevents MI, stroke, or death).
S/E: Hyperkalemia, altered taste, cough, angioedema, neutropenia and 1st dose ortho hypotension. Preg. Risk D. Contraindicated w/ kidney problems & Hx of angioedema. Monitor for S/S of infection. W/ Diuretics can cause hypotension. W/ antiHTN additive effects occur. W/ K+ products increase risk of hyperk+. Monitor Lithium levels (^ occurs). NSAIDS decrease antiHTN effects. BP monitored for 2 hrs post admin. to detect hypotension. Captopril given 1 hr ac meals. Notify PCP if cough, rash, or S/S of infection occur.
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers - Cozaar & Benicar
Blocks Ax of Angiotensin II in the body, resulting in vasodilation and excretion of sodium and water and retention of K+. Used for HTN, HF, MI, Stroke prevention and Delaying Diabetic nephropathy.
S/E Angioedema, fetal injury (Preg Risk D). Contraindicated w/ renal problems. AntiHTN have an additive effect.
Calcium Channel Blockers (CCB) - Procardia, Amlodipine (Norvasc), Calan (Verapimil), and Diltiazem (Cardiazem)
Procardia causes vasodilation. Verapimil and Diltiazem cause vasodilation and decrease force of contraction, HR, and rate of conduction through AV node. Used for angina, HTN and Verapimil and Diltiazem are also used for dysrhythmias.
Procardia S/E: reflex tachycardia, peripheral edema and toxicity. Verapimil & Diltiazem S/E: ortho hypotension and peripheral edema, constipation, cardio fx suppression, dysrythmias and toxicity. Preg. Risk C. Contraindicated w/ Heart block, hypotension, bradycardia and HF. Use cautiously w/ use of Digoxin. Monitor kidney fx and LFT. Grapefruit juice can cause toxicity. Digoxin levels can increase. Do not chew or crush tabs Admin. IV slowly (2-3 mins). Monitor BP & HR and record.
HTN Crisis: Nitroprusside & Labetolol
Cause vasodilation resulting in rapid reduction of BP. Used for HTN emergencies and decreases bleeding during Sx by producing controlled hypotension.
Excessive hypotension may occur. Preg. Risk C. Use cautiosly w/ liver & kidney disease and fluid & electrolyte imbalance. Solutions that are blue, red or green should be discarded. Protect solutions from light. do not mix meds. w/ anything else. Monitor BP & ECG when admin.
Organic Nitrates - Nitroglycerin
decrease cardio O2 demands by dilating veins and decreasing venous return (preload). Relaxes or prevents spasm in coronary arteries thus increasing O2 supply. Used for angina and controls BP perioperatively or produce hypotension and HF resulting from acute MI.
S/E: headache, ortho hypotension, reflex tachycardia and tolerance, Preg Risk C, sensitivity to nitrates, traumatic head injury, antiHTN meds, renal & liver dysfx. Avoid alcohol, antiHTN meds. contribute to hypotensive effects and Viagra can result in life threatening hypotension. Edu: stop activity, take nitro immediately, if pain unrelieved in 5 mins. call 911, take another dose up to 3 in 15 mins.
Cardiac glycosides - Digoxin
increase force of contractility, slows HR causing increased SV & CO. Used for HF & Dysrhythmias
S/E: dysrythmias, GI effects, and CNS effects. Preg Risk C, contraindicated w/ V. Fib, V. Tach, and Heart blocks. Diuretics increase Digoxin toxicity risk, Ace inhibitors increase risk of hyperk+. Verapimil increases blood levels of Dig. Take as Rx'd. Ck pulse before admin., admin at same time daily, avoid taking OTC meds., observe for hypok+ and Dig toxicity. Monitor K+, treat dysrythmias w/ Dilantin. Treat bradycardia w/ Atropine. Digibind is the antidote.
Antilipemics-HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) - Lipitor, Zocor, Pravachol and Crestor
LDL cholesterol decreased, prod. of LDL decreased, increase in HDL and promotion of vasodilation and decrease in plaque site inflammation and risk of thromboembolism. Used for: hypercholesterolemia, coronary event prevention, protects against MI and stroke w/ DM, and riases HDL levels.
S/E: Hepatotoxicity, Myopathy, and peripheral neuropathy. Preg. Risk X, Contraindicated w/ Hepatitis. Crestor should not be used by pts of Asian descent. Erythromycin & grapefruit juice increases statin levels. Admin. w/ evening meals. Obtain baseline cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride levels and monitor periodically. Obtain baseline liver & renal fx tests and monitor.
Anticoagulants/Parenteral - Heparin
Prevents bleeding by inactivating thrombin formation, resulting in inhibition of the formation of fibrin. Used for: evolving stroke, PE, and massive DVT. Also, during preg., adjunct for open heart Sx or renal dialysis, prophylaxis against DVT post-op, DIC and Acute MI.
S/E: Hemorrage (antidote: protamine sulfate), thrombocytopenia and hypersensitivity Rx. Contraindicated w/ thrombocytopenia and bleeding, Sx of the eye, brain or spinal cord, lumbar puncture and anesthesia. Do not give with anti-platlet meds (aspirin). Obtain baseline CBC, platelet count, and H&H; vitals. Given Sub-Q or IV. Double ck doasge w/ RN. Monitor PTT (60 - 80 secs).
Anticoagulants/Oral - Warfarin (Coumadin)
antagonzies Vit. K, preventing synthesis of coagulation factors and prothrombin. Used for: DVT, thrombus formation w/ A. Fib and Prosthetic heart valves.
S/E: Hemorrage (Antidote: Vit. K). Contraindicated with Preg. (Risk X), thrombocytopenia and bleeding, Sx of the Eye, brain & spinal cord, lumbar puncture and anesthesia. Also, Vit. K definciency, liver disorders & alcoholism. Do not give w/ heparin, aspirin, glucocorticoids, tylenol, sulfaonamides, cephalosporins, phenobarbital, tegretol, dilantin, B.C. or Vit. K. Decrease consumption of foods high in Vit. K. Obtain baseline vitals, PT & INR levels, CBC, platelet count and H&H. Avoid alcohol & OTC meds. Wear med. alert bracelet. Oral care.
Thrombolytics - tPA
dissolves clots that have already formed. Used for: Acute MI, DVT, PE and ischemic strokes.
S/E: bleeding. Contraindicated with prior intracranial hemorrage, cerebral lesions or tumors, active bleeding, head trauma & pericarditis. Do not use NSAIDS, heparin or warfarin while using. Must be given within 3 hrs of onset, pts must be supervised, obtain baseline vitals, monitor hemodynamic status, provide safety, adequate IV access, do not mix meds. w/ any other IV meds, limit any injection or punctures & D/C if bleeding occurs.
Iron preparations - ferrous sulfate (Feosol)
Provides iron needed for RBC development and O2 transport to cells. Used for: Iron deficiency anemia and prevents it.
S/E: GI distress, teeth staining, and anaphylaxis (IV). Contraindicated w/ hypersensitivity to iron, hemolytic anemia, PUD, and servere liver disease. Do not give w/ antacids or Vit. C. Take iron an an empty stomach, acid increases absorption, stools may turn green or black in color, increase water and fiber intake, maintain excercise, encourage intake of foods high in iron (liver, egg yolks, muscle meats and yeast)
Folic Acid
essential in the prod. of DNA and RBC, WBC and platelets. Used for anemia, neural tube defects during Preg. & malabsorption syndrome.
No S/E. Indiscriminante use can mask signs of Vit. B12 deficiency. Do not take sulfa Rx's or methotrexate concurrently, it reduces folic acid. Abtain baseline folic acid levels, RBC, H&H and monitor. Intake foods w/ high folic acid (liver & green leafy vegetables).
Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Epogen or Procrit
Acts on the bone marrow to increase prod. of RBC. Used for Anemia (renal failure, elective Sx & Chemo) & HIV pts taking Retrovir.
S/E: HTN and ^ risk for cardio event. Contraindicated w/ uncontrolled HTN. Monitor iron levels, folic acid, and Vit. B12 (must be normal). Monitor H&H twice a wk. Obtain baseline BP.
Hematopoietic Growth Factors/Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor - Neupogen
Stimulates bone marrow to increase prod. of neutrophils. Used for: decreased risk of infection with neutropenia.
S/E: Bone pain (Admin. Tylenol) & Leukocytosis. Contraindicated w/ sensitivity tests to E. Coli protein. Monitor CBC 2X/wk.
Thrombopoietic Gorwth Factors - Neumega
Increases Prod. of platelets. used for thrombocytopenia
S/E: fluid retention & dysrhythmias. Obtain baseline CBC, platelet count and electrolytes.
Glucocorticoids - Prednisone, Flovent & Azmacort
prevents inflammation, suppresses airway mucus prod., promotes responsiveness of B2 receptors in bronchial tree. Promotes decreased frequency and severity og exacerbations and acute attacks. Used for: prophylaxis of asthma, S/S of acute asthma attack, treats chronic asthma, Adrenocortical insufficiency, and lung maturity & decreased resp. distress in fetus at risk for premature birth.
S/E: Inhaled - difficulty speaking, hoarseness and candidiasis. +10 days of use - suppression of adrenal glands, you must taper when D/C. Monitor B.S. Contraindicated w/ live virus vaccine inj. & fungal infections. Diuretics (except spirolactone) may cause hypok+ & NSAIDS can cause GI ulcers. Use B2 Rx ac these Rx, caused bronchodilation. Used short term following asthma attack.
Mast Cell Stabalizers - Intal
Anti-inflammatory Ax - inhibits release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators. Used for: Chronic asthma, excercise induced asthma, allergen induced asthma and allergic rhinitis.
S/E: none. Preg Risk B, Contraindicated w/ CAD, dysrhythmias and status asthmaticus. Take 15 mins. ac excercise or allergen exposure. May take several wks for effects to establish.
Leukotriene Modifiers - Singulair & Zyflo
supresses inflammation, broncoconstriction, airway edema and mucus prod. used for: long term therapy of asthma.
S/E: Liver injury. Contraindicated w/ Liver Dysfx. Inhibits the metabolism of Warfarin and theophylline. Take at bedtime.
Antitussive-Opioids - Codeine
suppresses cough. Used for: chronic non-productive cough.
S/E: CNS effects, GI distress and potential for abuse Sched. II. Preg. Risk C. Contraindicated w/ acute asthma, head trauma, liver & renal dysfx, and acute alcoholism. Avoid hazardous activities, change positions slowly and avoid alcohol and other CNS depressants.
Mucolytics - Mucomyst
Enhances the flow of secretions in the resp. passage. Used for: pulmonary disorders exacerbated by large amounts of secretions, cysitic fibrosis and Tylenol overdose.
S/E: aspiration and bronchospasm. Preg Risk B. Should not use w/ GI bleeding. This Rx smells like rotten eggs. Dilute in fruit juice or other beverage. Coughing facilitated. Be prepared to suction.
Decongestants - Ephedrine
Stimulates Alpha1 adrenergic receptors causing reduction in the inflammation of nasal membranes. Used for: allergic rhinitis, sinuitis and common cold.
S/E: rebound congestion, CNS stimulation, and vasoconstriction. Contraindicated w/ chronic rhinitis. Use topical only for 3- 5 days.
High Ceiling Loop Diuretics: Lasix or Bumex
Works in the ascending loop of Henle to prevent reabsorption of Na+ & Cl- & causes diuresis. Used for: Pulmonary edema, renal impairment and hypercalcemia (r/t kidney stones).
S/E: Dehydration, hypotension, ototoxicity, and hypokalemia. Preg. Risk C. W/ Digoxin use toxicity can occur, antihypertensives have an additive effect, lithium levels can rise and NSAIDS can cause blunt diuresis. Obtain baseline BP, weight, I&O's, electrolytes and fluid vol. Get up slowly. Consume foods w/ K+. Monitor B.S. levels w/ DM.