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71 Cards in this Set

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Bendroflumethiazide

Thiazide diuretics. Blocks Na+ reabsorption → ↓ H2O reabsorption → ↓total blood volume




↓BP

Atenolol/Propranolol

β-blockers. Antagonist of β-adrenergic receptors in heart + juxtaglomerular cells (secrete renin). Atenolol = β1, Propranolol = β1+2




↓ BP, ↓HR

Doxazosin, Prazosin

α adrenoreceptor blocker of smooth muscle @ precapillary sphincter. SE: 1st dose hypotension




↓ BP

Amlodipine

Ca2+ antagonists. Inhibit Ca2+ influx in smooth muscle → vasodilation




↓BP

Captopril

ACE inhibitors. ↓ Angiotensin II, by blocking Ang I→Ang II




↓BP

Losartan

Angiotensin receptor blockers. Block Angiotensin II binding to AT1 receptor.




↓BP

spironolactone

Aldosterone receptor blocker, renal absorption of Na+ H2O reabsorption total blood volume



BP


Omeprazole

PPI. Irreversibly inhibits H+/K+ ATPase pump.




Peptic ulcers

Clarithromycin

Macrolide antibiotic. Blocks RNA translation to peptides.




Antibiotic, Peptic ulcers (in combo with PPI)

Amoxicillin

Penicillins. Inhibits peptidoglycan, and thus bacterial cell wall formation




Antibiotic, Peptic ulcers (in combo with PPI)

Metronidazole

Binds to DNA + inhibits nucleic acid synthesis in anaerobic bacteria.



Antibiotic, Peptic ulcers (in combo with PPI)


Ranitidine

Histamine H2 antagonists.




Peptic ulcers

Misoprostol

Prostaglandin agonist.↓HCl secretion,↑mucous secretion




Peptic ulcers

Hyoscine

Muscarinic cholinergic antagonist. Acts in CTZ




Antiemetic

Chlorpromazine, Perphenazine + Domperidone

Azine antipsychotics Dopamine receptor (D2) antagonist. Acts in CTZ.




Antiemetic

Metclopramide

D2 antagonist + mixed 5HT3/4 antagonist. Acts in CTZ




Antiemetic

Ondansetron

5HT antagonist, ↓ vagal activity, acts in CTZ.




Antiemetic

Cyclizine, cinarizine, promethazine

Histamine H1 antagonists. Act in CTZ.




Antiemetic

Olanzapine + Risperidone (2nd Gen), Haloperidol (1st gen)

Antipsychotic D2 receptor antagonists. H1, muscarinic, α-adreno + 5-HT receptor antagonists → SIDE EFFECTS, as well as extrapyramidal SEs due to DA blockage.




Schizophrenia

Amytriptyline, Lofepramine

Tricyclic antidepressants. Block NA + 5-HT reuptake transporters. SEs as antipsychotics (except no DA extrapyramidal)




Depression

Fluoxetine, Citalopram

SSRIs. Block 5-HT reuptake transporter (SERT). SEs: nausea, vomiting, dependancy, sexual dysfunction, ↑ suicidal ideation, BUT safer in overdose c.f. tricyclics.




Depression + Anxiety

Phenelzine, Medobemide

MAO inhibitors. SEs: hypertensive crisis if diet rich in Tyramine (cheese + bovril)




Depression + Anxiety

Lithium Carbonate (Priadel/Camcolit)

↓DA+Glu (excitatory), ↑GABA (inhibitory). Affects 2nd messengers in intracellular signalling cascade. Narrow therapeutic window.




Bipolar Disorder

Diazepam, Lorazepam, Temazepam

Benzodiazepines. Bind to GABA receptor and potentiate it's effect. SEs: Drowsiness(hypnotic), dependance, resp. depression with alcohol.




Anxiety, Muscle spasms, hypnotic

Digoxin/Digitalis

Inhibits N+/K+ ATPase, ↑ Na+, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger used, ↑ Ca2+, +ve inotropy, -ve chronotropy




↓HR

Ezitimibe

blocks gut absorption of cholesterol, used in combo with statins




↓Cholesterol

Atorvastatin

Statins. Inhibits HMG CoA reductase, ↓de novo Cholesterol




↓Cholesterol

Cholestyramine

Binds to bile acids + ↑excretion, therefore liver uses cholesterol to make more.




↓Cholesterol

Bezafibrate, Clofibrate

↑HDL ↓TAG




↓Cholesterol

Nicotinic acid

High doses↑HDL ↓VLDL, LDL




↓Cholesterol

Na Valproate

Blocks Na ion channels weakly + ↑ opening time of GABA




epilepsy, anxiety, bipolar, PTSD

Donepezil

Acetylcholinesterase antagonist




Alzheimer's

Ketamine

Antagonist of NMDA receptor, involved in Glu neurotransmission




Anaesthesia, Analgesic, Crazy horses

Metformin

Biguanide. Activates AMP kinase + improves insulin resistance: ↑skeletal muscle glucose uptake ↓glucose absorption from intestine ↓ glycogenolysis + gluconeogenesis(liver). Weight neutral. SE ↓B12




TII Diabetes

Gliclazide, Glimepiride

Sulphonylureas. Stimulate insulin secretion by closing ATP-sensitive K+ channels on β-cells. SE weight gain, hypoglycaemia




TII Diabetes

Troglitazone, Rosiglitazone, Pioglitazone

Thiazolidinediones/glitazones. PPARγ agonist, acts as insulin sensitiser in liver,adipose +skeletal muscle. SE weight gain, oedema, bonefracture.




TII Diabetes

Exenatide, Liraglutide

GLP-1 agonists. ↑ insulin release + ↓ glucagon release, ↓ speed of gastric emptying (carbs absorbed more slowly), SE: ↓ apetite → weight loss, GIT problems, pancreatitis?




TII Diabetes

Sitagliptin, Vildagliptin, Saxagliptin, Linagliptin

DPP-4 inhibitors. Block degredation of GLP-1. Weight neutral. Linagliptin secreted in bile, useful for pts with renal failure. SE acute pancreatitis, GIT problems, dermatitis, resp. infxns




TII Diabetes

Dapaglifozin, Canaglifozin

SGLT-2 inhibitors. Inihibits SGLT-2 in proximal convoluted tubule → ↓glucose reabsorption. No risk of hypo. SE weight loss, ↑GU infxns




TII Diabetes

Insulin

Various preparations: short (humulin S), intermediate (humulin 1/Neutral protamine) + long-acting. Premixed = combo of short+intermediate.




TI + TII diabetes

Carbimazole, Propylthiouracil

Thionamides. Inhibit thyroid peroxidase (no I-→I). PTU also inhibits T3→T4.




Hyperthyroidism

Radioactive I

Death of thyroid cells. Given if drugs unsuccessful/pt is older. SE: iatrogenic hypothyroidism




Hyperthyroidism

Viagra(sidenafil)

Inhibits phosphodiesterase-5, ceasing cGMP hydrolysis




Erectile Dysfunction

Biglutamide

Androgen receptor antagonist




Prostate Cancer

Finasteride

reductase inhibitor (blocks testeosterone→ dihydrotestosterone




Prostate Cancer

Desogestrel, Etonogestrel, Levonorgestrel

Progesterone nuclear hormone receptor agonists.Inhibits LH (no LH surge, no ovulation). Thicken mucus, prevent ovulation, causes endometrial atrophy (the holy trinity)


SE: VTE, Menstrual irregularities




Contraception

Estradiol sulphate/valerate, Estriol

Oestrogen nuclear hormone receptor agonists. Inhibit FSH, preventing follicle maturation. Thicken mucus, prevent ovulation, causes endometrial atrophy (the holy trinity)


SE: VTE




Contraception

Orlistat

Pancreatic lipase inhibitor




Obesity

Hemicholinium

Blocks presynaptic reuptake of choline by high affinity transporter. Indirect antagonist acetylcholine antagonist.




Causes gradual paralysis. Not clinically used

Botulinum

Blocks release of Ach-containing vesicles




Cosmetic

Edrophonium, Neostigmine, Physiostigmine, Pyridostigmine

Competetive acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.




Myasthenia Gravis, Anaesthesia

Sarin

Irrevesible anticholinesterase. Antidote = Pralidoxime (cleaves sarin-cholinesterase bonding)




Nerve Gas

Curare, Tubocurarine, Atracurium, Pancuronium, Mivacurium

Nicotinic cholinergic antagonists




Muscle relaxants

Suxamethonium

Nicotinic agonist. Causes temporary paralysis by depolarising neuron, followed by muscle relaxation. V SHORT period of effect <1min




Muscle relaxant

Atropine, Hyoscine (seeB3), Tropicamide

Muscarinic antagonist.




Dilates pupils (ATROPINE)

Pilocarpine

Muscarinic agonist.




Glycoma

Cocaine

Na+ channel blocker




Drug of abuse

Salbutamol, Salmaterol

β2 adrenoreceptor agonists → bronchodilator




Asthma

Isoprenaline, adrenaline, noradrenaline

β1+2 adrenoreceptor agonists (NA = β1 only)




Asthma + heart block (ISOPRENALINE)

Phenoxybenzamine

Non-selective α-adrenoreceptor antagonist




↓BP + Anaesthetic

Alendronate, Resindronate, Etindronate

Biphosphonates. Inhibits osteoclastic activity




Osteoporosis

Calciferol

Vitamin D agonist




Osteoporosis, Vit. D deficiency

Aspirin, Indomethacin, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac

NSAIDs. COX1+2 inhibitors. Ibuprofen reversible inhibitor. SE: Gastric ulcers, bleeding.




Anti-inflammatory

Paracetamol

COX inhibition but not NSAID.




Analgesic

Celecoxib, Etoricoxib

Selective COX-2 inhibitors




Anti-inflammatory

Hydrocortisone, Prednisone, Prednisolone, Dexamethasone, Betamethasone

Glucocorticoids. Bind to cytoplasmic receptor, Hsp90 released, steroid-receptor complex enter cell and binds nuclear receptor to influence transcription. ↓ COX. Iipocortin produced(inhibits lipoxygenase production of leukotrienes) SE: Osteoporosis, immunodeficiency




Anti-inflammatory



Chlorphenamine, Promethazine, Cetirizine, fexofenadine

Antihistamines. H1/H2 antagonists. SE: Sedation (Chlorphenamine, Promethazine)




Anti-inflammatory

Cyclosporine A

Binds to cyclophilin protein (CpN) + inhibits calcineurin, which is key for IL-2 gene expression.




Anti-inflammatory

Tacrolimus

Binds to FK binding protein. Inhibits calcineurin (as Cyclosporine A)




Anti-inflammatory

Rapamycin

Binds FK binding protein and inhibits mTOR (molecular target of rapamycin)




Anti-inflammatory

Morphine, Diamorphine, Codeine, Tramadol

Opioids. CNS opioid receptor agonists.




Analgesics