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40 Cards in this Set

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Advantages of Aerosols?

1) free of contamination


2) sealed container controls stability


3) Uniform application


4) Reduced irritation


5) Cleaner for the health care giver


6) measured doses

What is an Aerosol?

Pharmaceutical dosage forms administered as a fine dispersion of solids or liquids in a gaseous medium

Difference between an atomizer and a nebulizer?

atomizer: particle size determined by pressure


nebulizer: controlled particle size (BETTER FOR DOSING)

Raoult's law?

It states that the partial vapor pressure of each component of an ideal mixture of liquids is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure component multiplied by its mole fraction in the mixture.


P=X1P1+X2P2

The principle that the pressure perpendicular to the flow of a fluid isinversely proportional to it velocity is called _________________ principle.

Bernoulli's Principle

A relationship which describes the rate of sedimentation of particles insuspension is called ______________ law

Stoke's law

A constant used toconstantcalculate the solubility of a gas in water is called?

Henry's Constant

Aggregates of surfactantmolecules in a mixture are called

Micelle

When solid particles come together in a suspension it is called a?

Globule

Explain how a liquid propellant works to make foam.

The pump has two chambers. One pumps the liquid, and one pumps air. Both are forced through the same tiny nozzle. Voila! Foam.

Why would helium not be as good at making foam as carbon dioxide?

Helium is flammable, while CO2 is quite the opposite

What are the advantages of using coco butter as a base in suppositories?

non-irritating & non-reactivemelts quickly at body temperature (at 37°C)



1 Gallon = __ pints

1 gallon = 8 pints

Bioequivalency

the property wherein two drugs with identical active ingredients or two different dosage forms of the same drug possess similar bioavailability and produce the same effect at the site of physiological activity

Colloid

a dispersion of particles which do not separate out on standing

Entropy

A measure of the disorder or randomness in a closed system.

Newtonian flow?

In a Newtonian fluid, such shear resistance is proportional to the relative velocity between the two surfaces on either side of a layer of fluid, the area in shear, the viscosity of the fluid and the reciprocal of the thickness of the layer of fluid.

Solution?

a molecular dispersion of a solute

Suspension?

a dispersion of solid particles above 10 microns in size

Emulsion?

when a uniform dispersion of one immiscible liquid in another is made

What are the 4 types of ointment bases used to make topical products?

oleaginous, absorption, water removable, water soluble

Which ointment base will impart the most emollient effect to the skin after application?

oleaginous

The ointment base category that includes lanolin?


absorption

a semi-solid water in oil emulsion best fits into what ointment category?

absorption

A semi-solid system consisting of a dispersion made of small inorganic particles (1nm-0.5 microns)?

gel

the aggregation of particles in a suspension?

flocculation

adding bentonite will decrease the rate of?

sedimentation

if sodium lauryl sulfate is added to a suspension, it will reduce the rate of this?

flocculation

When an emulsion separates into two separate layers, it is said to be?

cracking

the zeta potential can slow or prevent this?

sedimentation

This can be used to stabilize an emulsion by preventing coalescence?

film former

Suppositories are normally what size (in grams)?

2g

oral emulsions are normally what type of mixture?

oil-in-water

Van der Waal attraction?

when the slightly positive end of a dipole is attracted to the negative end of another molecule's dipole and they are held close, but are not completely/securely bonded

Adhesion?

when two types of compounds are attracted to one another

Cohesion?

same compound is attracted to itself

phase?

a section of a system that is set apart from the other sections due to a difference n their properties

Wetting?

the ability of a liquid to maintain contact with a solid surface, resulting from intermolecular interactions when the two are brought together

Free energy?

this is the energy available to do work and is calculated using entropy and enthalpy and the temperature of the system

HLB?

hydrophilic/lipophilic balance