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28 Cards in this Set

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Septicemia

systemic infection with pathogens present in the circulating bloodstream

Sepsis

infection in multiple systems as a result of microorganisms or their toxins circulating in the blood

infection

invasion of the body by pathogenic organisms that reproduce and multiply causing disease

colonization

localized presence and multiplication ofmicroorganisms without invasion or damage

bacteremia

bacteria in the bloodstream

Staphylococcus

gram positive cocci

Streptococcus

gram positive cocci

E. Coli

gram negative rod

Propionbacterium

gram positive rod

Corynebacterium

gram positive rod

Neisseria

gram negative rod

Enterobacter

enteric gram negative rod

Klebsiella

enteric gram negative rod

Proteus

enteric gram negative rod

Haemophilus

gram negative rod

Pseudomonas

gram negative rod

Clostridium

gram positive anaerobe

Bacteroides

gram negative anaerobe

Acid-fast bacilli

Mycobacterium tuberculosis


Mycobacterium avium

Mycoplasma pneumonia

mycoplasma

Treponema pallidum

spirochete

Fungi

Aspergillus


Candida


Cryptococcus

Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance

production of enzymes that degrade antibiotics


altering drug's target sites on bacteria


eliminating entry points for antibiotics


manufacturing pumps that export antibiotics before they find intracellular targets

Major mechanisms of spreading antibiotic resistance

heavy use of antibiotics (hospitals)


international travel


skin on family members of tetracycline users

Ways antibiotics are misused that can lead to resistance

doctors acquiescing to patients


sub therapeutic use of antibiotics (low compliance, unregulated self-medication)


unnecessary use of antibiotics (30% unnecessary, 50% not used on humans)

Best use for penicillinase-resistant drugs

staph aureus

Best use for nafcillin

best CNS penetration

Best use for cloxacillin

best oral absorption