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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

fracture caused by (4)

force exceeding compressive strenght of bone, trauma/abuse, accidents in work, osteroporosis

4 fracture classifications

complete/incomplete, open/closed, location, direction of fracture line

4 types of fracturs

comminuted, segmental, butterfly, impacted

complete fracture

the bone is broken all the way through

incomplete fracture

the bone is damaged but is still in one piece

open fracture types (2)

compound, simple

compound open fracture

skin is broken

treat compound fracture

cover bone with sterile moist towel

simple compound fracture

skin is intact

treat simple compound fracture

splint fracture

3 fracture locations

proximal, midshaft, distal


top or closer to body


center of bone


bottom or further from body


horizontal, perpendicular to bone length




wrap around bone like candy cane stripe


section broken from bone and broken piece shatters


segmental broken


shark bite


pressure from other bone causes tips to break off

3 directions of fracture lines

transverse, oblique, spiral

3 alternate terms for incomplete fractures

greenstick, torus, bowing


perforates one cortex and splinters the spongy bone


cortex buckles but does not break


paired radius-ulna or fibula-tibia

3 other classifications of bone fractures

pathologic, stress, fatigue

pathologic fracture

a break at the site of a preexisting abnormality

stress fracture

occurs in normal or abnormal bone that is subject to repeated stress (athlete)

fatigue fracture

caused by abnormal stress (when engage in a new or different act. that is both strenuous and repetitive (dancers, joggers))

patho - what is disrupted when bone broken

periosteum and blood vessels in the cortex, marrow, and surrounding soft tissues

patho - what causes bleeding

occurs from neighboring soft tissues and damaged ends of bone

patho - what forms and where

clot forms within the medullar canal, between the fractured ends of the bone

patho - what bone tissue dies

bone tissue immediately adjacent to fracture

patho - what response is stimulated and why

inflammatory response from dead tissue and any debris from fractured area

patho - inflammatory response characterized by

vasodilation, exudation of plasma and leukocytes, infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes and mast cells

patho - with 48 hrs after injury what invades where

vascular tissue invades the fractured area from surrounding soft tissue and marrow of the cavity

patho - osteoblasts from where do what

osteoblasts from procallus synthesize collagen and matrix

patho - synthesizing collagen and matrix does what

mineralizes to form callus (woven bone)

patho - as repair process continues what occurs causing what

remodeling occurs causing unnecessary callus to be reabsorbed and trabecular bone laid down

patho - new bone formed when

it heals after fracture

new bone is not

scar tissue

new bone appears what color

more white than original bone

5 sns of fractures

unnatural alignment, swelling, muscle spasm, tenderness and pain, impaired sensation

unnatural alignment


muscle spasm

may account for pain later on

tenderness and pain

severe at first, caused by the trauma

impaired sensation

pinching or severing of a nerve by the trauma or fragments


temporary displacement of two bone in which the two bone surfaces lose contact entirely


temporary displacement of two bones where contact between the two bone surfaces is only partially lost

6 usual spots for dislocation and subluxation

shoulder, elbow, wrist, finger, hip, knee

dislocation and subluxation may be caused by

congenital or acquired disorders such as RA

dislocation and subluxation often associated with


patho dis/sub - what usually accompanies dis/sub because why

fractures accompany because stress is placed on areas of bone that are not normally subject to stress

patho dis/sub - as bone seperates from joint what may occur

it may bruise or adjacent nerves, blood vessels, ligaments, supporting structures, and soft tissues

dis/sub sns same as


dis/sub sns

pain, swelling, motion limitation, joint deformity


tear or rupture of tendon at any site

strain usually result of

major trauma

strain usually where

hands, feet, knees, upper arms, thighs, angles, heels (achilles)


tear or rupture of a ligament at any joint

sprains most common where

wrist, ankle, elbow, knee

patho sprain/strain - what develops when tendon or ligament torn and where

inflammatroy exudate develops between torn ends

patho strain/sprain - how is repair process begun

granulated tissue containing macrophages, fibroblasts, and capillary buds grows inward from surrounding soft tissue and cartilage

patho strain/sprain - within how many days will what formation begin

4-5 days collagen formation begins and will organize parallel to the lines of stress

patho strain/sprain - as collagen is reorganized what occurs

healing tendon or ligament separates from surrounding soft tissue

patho sprain/strain - usually takes how long for tendon or ligament to withstand strong pull again

4-5 weeks

patho strain/sprain - what is common if what occurs prior to 4-5 weeks

reinjury is common if strong pull occurs prior to 4-5 weeks

strain/sprain sns (3)

pain, swelling, tendon/ligamen contour

strain/sprain pain (3)

sharp, localized, tender


rest, ice, compress, elevate

ice for how long

first 24 hours


painful inflammation of tendons where it attaches to bone


painful inflammation of bursae


small sacs lines with synovial membrane and filled with synovial fluid

bursae located where

between tendons, ligaments, and bony prominences

muscle strain

muscle is stretched beyond normal capacity

muscle strain may involve

tendon also

muscle strain usually caused by


muscle strain sns (2)

hemorrhage into surrounding tissue, inflammation

muscle strain categorized as


muscle strain grade 1

bone shifts slightly to side pulling tendon

muscle strain grade 2

tendon forms a little bump

muscle strain grade 3

tendon breaks in half

muscle strain grade 4

tendon pulls away from bone

compartment syndrome

any condition in which a structure such as a nerve or tendon is being constricted in a space

compartment syndrome ie

carpal tunnel syndrome

sheath or tendon of compartment syndrome

sheath or tendon may be enlarged due to disease or inflammation and no longer able to move freely in the compartment

assessment (6)

degree of pain, circulation/swelling, ROM/mobility, sns inflammation, proper alignment, fever/cbc

3 soft tissue injuries

contussion, hematoma, laceration


injury to soft tissue caused by direct trauma, skin remains intact but bruised


bruise (area of local hemorrhage)

note what for hematoma

how big it gets, pressure on area


where skin is torn


infection of bone disease, often by staph

osteomyelitis introduction of

infectious organism from soft tissue into bone

osteomyelitis often seen with (2)

open fractures, operative procedures

osteoyeltitis sns (2)

inflammation, wound exudate

treatment for fracture, strain, bruising, osteomyelitis, etc (4)

pain meds, antiinflammatory, antibiotic, cold or heat or PT

pain meds

start mild and increase if needed

antibiotic as


8 disorders of bone

osteoporosis, osteomalacia, anklyosing spondylitis (AS), paget's disease, osteoarthritis, RA, gout, bone tumors