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20 Cards in this Set

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Does natural selection select based on phenotypes or genotypes?

Phenoytypes

What are Tinbergen's four questions?

1. Control - how does it work?


2. Ontogeny - how did it develop?


3. Function - what is it for?


4. Evolution - how did it evolve?

How big are fully grown female and male fiddler crab's claws?

8% of body weight (female)


38% of body weight (males)

How often to Fiddler Crabs Breed?

Every 14 days in Summer Months

Function of claw waving in the fiddler crabs

Defense of burrow against male rivals


Species recognition


Mate attraction



List the controls of behaviours

1. Simple (Reflexes, Kinesis, Taxis)


2. Neural Control


3. Hormonal Control


4. Diurnal & Tidal Control


5. Social Control

Innate behaviors are

Instinctive behaviors

The fosB gene affects what in mice?

Maternal behaviour

What does a geneticist do

Describes variation and determines it's cause.

Types of Variation include

Continuous; several minor genes, analyse by statistical or molecular methods, have to consider environmental factors.




Discontinuous; one or a few major genes, analyse by segregation analysis, may be able to ignore environment

What are quantitative characters

Attributes that vary continuously. Any features in life that can vary between individuals

List some quantitative characters

Birth weight in man


Height in man


Milk prod. in diary cattle


Egg laying in chickens


Yield of grain in cereal crops

What is polygenic inheritence?

When two or more genes affect and control one particular characteristic

What is independent assortment?

Genes that assort independently affect only one characteristic and do not affect others.

Why does red hair and freckles often appear together?

Both genes appear close to one another on the same chromosome, so therefor they travel together and cannot be split apart during crossing over.

Why are females less likely to be colour blind?

Because females have a second X chromosome which can negative mutations on the other X chromosome, whereas males only have one X chromosome and therefor more likely to contract the mutation.




X o X




X XoX (female car.) XX (female)








Y XoY (male carrier) XY (male)






Male = 1/10 chance


Female = 1/10 x 1/10 = 1/100 chance

Why is nonnuclear inheritance used to trace evolutionary history?

Because it resides inside of mitochondria instead of nuclei, and mitochondria is passed down generations by the mother's egg (passed down maternally) so it does not crossover.

In a cross between an AABbCc X AaBBCC what is the chance of getting a AaBbCc offspring?

1/8

What is a polygene?

Mini genes that combine together to form one phenotype, or combine another way to form another phenotype.

Genetic drift is strongest when...

The population is small