• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
personality trait
an individual’s unique collection of consistent behavioral traits
the stability in a person’s behavior over time and across situations
behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation
consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time
contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved
contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior
(governed by the “pleasure principle”): primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle (demands immediate gratification of its urges)
(governed by the “reality principle”): decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle (seeks to delay gratification of the ids urges until appropriate outlets and situation can be found)
(governed by the “moral principle”): moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong
Libidinal energy
psychic energy produced by the libido
erogenous zones
area of the human body that has heightened sensitivity, the stimulation of which would normally result in sexual arousal
Role of fixation
involves a failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected
first year of life; source of stimulation is mouth (biting, sucking, chewing); weaning from bottle or nipple; obsessive eating or smoking
second year; pleasure from bowel movements (expulsion or retention of feces); potty training; fixation: hatred of women or sexual anxiety later in life
3rd to 5th year; genitals become focus for erotic energy; boys like moms; girls like dads; penis envy
Oedipal complex
male's psycho-sexual development involves a sexual attachment to his mother
Electra complex
female's psycho-sexual development involves a sexual attachment to her father
5th year to puberty; sexuality is largely suppressed; expanding social contacts beyond immediate family
puberty onward; sexual urges reappear and focus on genitals; channeled toward peers of other sex
reversion to immature patterns of behavior (i.e. boasting, bragging)
faced with a fact that is too uncomfortable to accept and rejects it instead, insisting that it is not true despite what may be overwhelming evidence
keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
Reaction Formation
behaving in a way that’s exactly the opposite of one’s true feelings
attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another
diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target
transformation of unwanted impulses into something less harmful
Striving for superiority
(Adler) universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life’s challenges; prime goal of life not physical gratification (Freud)
Inferiority complex
(Adler) exaggerated feelings of weakness and inadequacy (harmful compensation: involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one’s abilities)
Personal unconsciousness
(Jung) 1st layer of unconscious; same as Freud’s version of unconscious; material not within one’s conscious awareness
Collective unconsciousness
(Jung) deeper layer of unconscious; storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people’s ancestral past; shared with entire human race
(Jung) emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning
Factor analysis
correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables; single factors are responsible for correlating traits
Emotional Stability (Neuroticism)
anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure, and vulnerable
outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive, and gregarious
Openness to experience
curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, and unconventional attitudes
sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest, and straightforward
diligent, disciplined, well-organized, punctual and dependable
Behavioral approach (Skinner)
based on premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
behavior is fully determined by environmental stimuli
Response tendencies
personality is made up of these which are tied to stimulus situations
Cognitive-Behavioral/Social cognitive approach (Bandura)
Personality is largely shaped through learning
one’s belief about one’s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes
Mischel’s person-situation theory
people will behave differently in different situations
Self-actualization (Maslow)
need to fulfill one’s potential (highest need in hierarchy); people with exceptionally healthy personalties, marked by continued personal growth
The role of the self-concept
collection of beliefs about one’s own nature, unique qualities and typical behavior
Conditions of worth (incongruence)
degree of disparity between one’s self-concept and one’s actual experience
Hierarchy of needs
systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused
Extraversion – introversion
(Eysenck and Eysenck) introverts tend to have high levels of physiological arousal, which make them more easily conditioned than extraverts; people who condition easily acquire more conditioned inhibitions than others; social discomfort
The role of family environment
shared family environment appears to have remarkably little impact on personality
Independent self
(American/Western) define oneself in terms of personal attributes, abilities, accomplishments and possessions
Interdependent self
(Asian/Eastern) emphasizes the fundamental connectedness of people to each other; rely on family and friends, should be modest about personal accomplishments so they don’t diminish others’ achievements; should view themselves as part of a larger social matrix; encouraged to fit in and avoid standing out from the crowd; define themselves by the groups they belong to; self worth is measured by group achievements and harmonious relations with others