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49 Cards in this Set

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Causes of New markets and monopolies in North America
Following the Civil War, government subsidies for transportationand communication systems opened new markets in NorthAmerica, while technological innovations and redesigned financialand management structures such as monopolies sought to maximizethe exploitation of natural resources and a growing labor force.
Reasons for looking to overseas markets
Businesses and foreign policymakers increasingly looked outsideU.S. borders in an effort to gain greater influence and controlover markets and natural resources in the Pacific, Asia, and LatinAmerica.
Defense of trusts
Business leaders consolidated corporations into trusts and holdingcompanies and defended their resulting status and privilegethrough theories such as Social Darwinism.
Conspicuous consumption
As cities grew substantially in both size and in number, somesegments of American society enjoyed lives of extravagant“conspicuous consumption,” while many others lived in relativepoverty.
Effects of immigration on workforce
The industrial workforce expanded through migration acrossnational borders and internal migration, leading to a more diverseworkforce, lower wages, and an increase in child labor.
Labor V. Managment
Labor and management battled for control over wages andworking conditions, with workers organizing local and nationalunions and/or directly confronting corporate power.
New South
Despite the industrialization of some segments of the southerneconomy, a change promoted by southern leaders who called for a“New South,” agrarian sharecropping, and tenant farming systemscontinued to dominate the region
Conservationists V. Corporate Entities
Government agencies and conservationist organizations contendedwith corporate interests about the extension of public control overnatural resources, including land and water.
Methods of Farmers' adaptation to new markets
Farmers adapted to the new realities of mechanized agricultureand dependence on the evolving railroad system by creating localand regional organizations that sought to resist corporate controlof agricultural markets.
populist party platform
The growth of corporate power in agriculture and economicinstability in the farming sector inspired activists to create thePeople’s (Populist) Party, which called for political reform and astronger governmental role in the American economic system.
Causes of Urbanization and movement to West
Increased migrations from Asia and from southern and eastern Europe as well as African american immigrants within and out of the south
Characteristics of cities
Cities dramatically reflected divided social conditions
Americanization and Maintenance of culture
Immigrants began to adapt to our culture and the culture began to change and sway in many directions
Characteristics of Political Machines
They developed support groups for the people and help people come together as a whole inside the nation
Effects of Immigration on Native Americans
As transcontinental railroads were completed, bringing more settlers west,U.S. military actions, the destruction of the buffalo, the confinement ofAmerican Indians to reservations, and assimilation policies reduced thenumber of American Indians and threatened native culture and identity.
Causes for violent conflict in the West
The competition for land in the West among white settlers, Indians,and Mexican Americans led to an increase in violent conflict.
US Response to Indian resistance
The U.S. government generally responded to American Indianresistance with military force, eventually dispersing tribes ontosmall reservations and hoping to end American Indian tribalidentities through assimilation.
Public response to government corruption
Corruption in government — especially as it related to big business —energized the public to demand increased popular control and reformof local, state, and national governments, ranging from minor changesto major overhauls of the capitalist system.
Justification of violence toward minorities
Increasingly prominent racist and nativist theories, alongwith Supreme Court decisions such as Plessy v. Ferguson, wereused to justify violence as well as local and national policies ofdiscrimination and segregation.
Arguments for wealth inequality
Cultural and intellectual arguments justified the success of thoseat the top of the socioeconomic structure as both appropriate andinevitable, even as some leaders argued that the wealthy had someobligation to help the less fortunate.
Challenges to corporate ethics
A number of critics challenged the dominant corporate ethic inthe United States and sometimes capitalism itself, offering alternatevisions of the good society through utopianism and the SocialGospel.
African american and women's arguments
Challenging their prescribed “place,” women and AfricanAmerican activists articulated alternative visions of political,social, and economic equality
focus of large corporations
increased production of consumer goods by new technologies and manifactoring techniques
opportunities of urbanization
women,interal and international immigrants
reasons for calls to stronger financial regulations
episodes of credit and market instability,most critically the Great Depression
aims of progressive reforms
worked to reform social and political institutions at local,state and federal level by creating new orginizations
legislation promoted by progressives
to regulate abuse of the economy and enviroment and expand democracy
FDR new deal
earlier progressive ideas and represented a multifaceted approachto both the causes and effects of the Great Depression, usinggovernment power to provide relief to the poor, stimulate recovery,and reform the American economy.
radical vs concervative opinions of new deal
Radical, union, and populist movements pushed Roosevelt towardmore extensive reforms, even as conservatives in Congress and theSupreme Court sought to limit the New Deal’s scope.
new deals legacy of reform
New Deal did not completely overcome theDepression, it left a legacy of reforms and agencies that endeavoredto make society and individuals more secure, and it helped fostera long–term political realignment in which many ethnic groups,African Americans, and working–class communities identifiedwith the Democratic Party
effects of new technology
improved standards of living,greater personal mobility, and better communications systems.
examples of cultural conflicts caused by modernization
tradition versus innovation, urban versus rural, fundamentalistChristianity versus scientific modernism, management versuslabor, native–born versus new immigrants, white versus black, andidealism versus disillusionment.
causes and effects of the harlem renaissance
The rise of an urban, industrial society encouraged the harlem renaissance whichh effected the national culture with art and amd mass media.
repressive atmosphere created by ww1
for civil liberaties such as freedom of speech
1st red scare
As labor strikes and racial strife disrupted society that legitimized attacks on redicals and immigrants
restricted vs unrestricted immigration
Several acts of Congress established highly restrictive immigration quotas,while national policies continued to permit unrestricted permission from western hemisphere
great migration
american americans migrated out of the south for oppertuntities offered by ww1
effects of ww1 and ww2 on immigration
immigrated immigrated to america for wartime production jobs
mexicans during the 1930–40s
Many Mexicans, drawn to the United States by economic oppertunities faced ambivilent government polices from 1930–1940
causes of us expansion into non–white nations
americans were destined to spead and norms to others especially non–white nations
effects of us victory in spanish american war
U.S. acquisition of island territories, an expanded economicand military presence in the Caribbean and Latin America,engagement in a protracted insurrection in the Philippines, andincreased involvement in Asia.
effects of americas imperialism on views of american involvment
Questions about America’s role in the world generatedconsiderable debate, prompting the development of a wide varietyof views and arguments between imperialists and anti–imperialistsand, later, interventionists and isolationists.
neutrality vs involvment during ww1
american abanded neautrality to enter the ww1 and become involved
post ww1 peace negotiations with wilson
involved with the treaty of versailles and the leauge of nations
us foreign policy from 1920–30
unilateral foreign policy
economic effects of mobilization for ww2
provided oppertunities for women and minorities to improve their socioeconomic positions
wartime experiences that caused americans to question values
internment of JapaneseAmericans, challenges to civil liberties, debates over race andsegregation, and the decision to drop the atomic bomb
reasons for us and allied victory in ww2
including allied politicaland military cooperation, industrial production, technologicaland scientific advances, and popular commitmen
reasons for us emergence as a world power after ww2
The dominant American role in the Allied victory and postwarpeace settlements, combined with the war–ravaged condition ofAsia and Europe, allowed the United States to emerge from the waras the most powerful nation on earth.