• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

axiolateral hip (HB - Danelius-Miller)

- displacement and rotation of femoral head; proximal femoral #

- CR perp to femoral neck of affected side; mid femur (NOF well visualised - otherwise, will be foreshortened)

- body: patient supine

- part: flex and elevate unaffected leg so that thigh is in near vertical position, support

- MSP perp to tabletop

- place IR in holder in crease above crest and adjust so that it is parallel to NOF and perp to CR - if trauma, do not internally rotate leg

- int rot: LT visible on inferior aspect

- ext rot: GT visible on inferior aspect of femur

AP pelvis

body: supine with legs extended, arms abducted away from torso

part: rot: MSP perp - check ASIS equidistant from IR; tilt: patient lying flat on table; heels apart and feet rotated internally aprox 15 degrees

CR: between ASIS and SP (Charnley, at SP)

collimate: include top of crests and prox femur

breathing: suspended respiration

AP hip

position as for AP pelvis, centre to affected hip at NOF

-if ischial spine is visible beyond pelvic brim, patient is rotated with thatside closer to IR

- if ischial spine is closer to acetabulum, and obsturators open, patient is rotated away from side of interest

- internal rot of feet: lessertrochanter is barely visualised on medial aspect of femurR, NOF is visualised

ext rot: lessertrochanter is well visualised on medial aspect, NOF superimposed by GT

frog leg (mediolateral hip)

- CI: DDH, lateral for paeds

- flex knees 90 degrees

- place plantar surfaces together and abduct both femora 45 degrees from vertical

- CR 7.5 cm below ASIS

- abduction: GT over NOF, which is foreshortened; LT below medial margin of femora

- 20 degrees abd: NOF better demonstrated, GT in profile laterally

- more than 45 degrees: NOF obscured by GT, LT seen in profile medially

- looking at acetabulum for dislocation of femoral heads

modified mediolateral hip (Lauenstein)

24 x 30

- foreshortens neck but demonstrates head and acetabulum well

- rotate patient on affected side till femur in contact w/ tabletop, sponge support raised side

- flex knee and hip on affected side

- CR to mid femoral neck

- closes obturator, large ischial spine visible

- NOF partially superimposed by GT and LT visualised medially

AP femur

35 x 43 cassette

- rotate leg interally 5 degrees for true AP

- or 15 degrees for prox

- CR perp to femur and IR, midpoint of IR

- rot: medial half of fib superimposed by tibia

- internal rot: fibula free of superimposition

- joint space not open due to divergence

- patella slightly to medial femur

lateral femur

- flex knee 45 degrees

- place unaffected leg behind to prevent over-rot

- CR perp to femur

- joint not open and condyles not superimposed due to divergent beam

- open femoralpatellar joint space

- under-rot: GT lateral, fib superimposed

- over-rot: LT medial, fib free of superimposition

axial pelvic inlet

- assess ant/post displacement of each hemipelvis; # pelvic ring

- can elevate knees for comfort

- AP pelvis with 40 degree caudad tilt

- CR at ASIS

- rot: SP and sacrum alignment

- tilt: obturators not visible

axial pelvis outlet

- assess sup/inf displacement of each hemipelvis; # pubic/ischial rami; SIJS (widening = #)

- 30-40 degrees cephalad

- CR 5 cm distal to PS

- rot: obturators

- tilt: SP superimposed over sacrum

acetabulum projections (Judet)

- assess obturator ring, # of iliopubic column and post rim of acetabulum

- 45 degree oblique with affected side raised

- CR head of femur

- MVA - knee goes forward and impacts on soemthing, pushes femur into acetabulum

- OR 45 degree with affected side down

- assess # ilioishial column, iliac wing and ant rim of acetabulum

PA pubic symph

- weight bearing one side then other

- ? abnormal motion of SIJs - change in alignment of PS

leg length

ASIS to ankles

long FFD for anatomy of interest

variable FFD so use filter

clinical indications

- # or dislocation

- inflammatory or infectious disorders (RA, OA, infectious arthritis, osteomyelitis - bone marrow)

- congenital and hereditary abnormalities (osteopetrosis, osteogenisis imperfecta)

- metabolic bone disease (osteoporosis, osteomalacia, Ricket's, Paget's)

- benign bone tumours (osteochondrosis, enchondromas, giant cell tumour)

- malignant bone tumours (sarcoma, multiple myeloma)

- foreign bodies

modified axiolaterl hip

- pull patient across to edge of table and use bucky tray to hold 5cm below tabletop

- angle tube 12-20 degrees from vertical and ensure IR is perp to CR

- angle CR mediolaterally as needed so that it is perp to NOF, angle posteriorly 15-20 degrees from horizontal