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121 Cards in this Set

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Reaction Speed
time btwn a stimulus and first movement
Speed of Movement
ability to move body quickly over specific distance
Specific Limb Speed
Ability to perform high speed movements of a body part
What is absolute speed determined by?
stride length and stride rate
Stride Length Factors
ROM, power, technique, fatigue
Stride Rate Factors
time on ground/air, muscle contraction speed, power, technique, fatigue
Speed-Strength
ability to exert max force during high speed movements
Speed-Endurance
ability to perform max/near max sprints with various sport-specific recovery
Speed training categories
maximun speed
speed endurance
technique
flexibility
Maximum Speed Drills
Speed Drills
Speed Resisted
Speed Assisted
Speed Drills Benefit
increases speed off the mark
Speed Resisted Drills Benefit
leads to greater acceleration and power
Speed Assisted Drills Benefit
increase movement rate/frequency
Speed Endurance
maintains higher work rate for longer
Speed Endurance example Drills
Shuttle Runs
Pyramids
Cruise + Sprint
Cross Drills
Technique Drills
Marching/Skipping/Running A's and B's
Butt Kicks
Homeostatic Failure-Limitation Model
linear physiological changes produces by myscle contractions. AKA 'no brain model'
Fatigue results from failure to maintain homeostasis
Anticipatory-Regulatory Model
Physiological and psychological inputs before exercise
AKA 'Brain Model'
feedback in integrated to regulate exercise
Lactate Training Levels
Below Threshold
Between Threshold and MLSS
Between MLSS and VO2max
Below Threshold (Lactate Training Level)
78% of training
low-intensity
Between threshold and MLSS (Lactate Training Level)
18% of training
moderate/high intensity
Between MLSS and VO2max (Lactate Training Level)
4% of training
interval training
Why if below threshold training better?
-can improve SV more effectively
- reduces risk of over training
- improves technique
Continuous
exercise at or near an intensity for the duration of the exercise session
Intermittent
exercise periods of very high intensity, but of short duration
Interval
longer exercise intervals of high intensity, short duration
Training Methods for Aerobic Performance
Long Slow Distance
Tempo
Threshold
Push/Pull
Interval
Intermittent
Pace Training
Strength Training
Long Slow Distance Training
-intensity
-duration
intensity: 40-70%
duration: 30 min to hrs
Long Slow Distance Training benefits
caloric expenditure
low musculoskeletal and physiological stress
promotes fat metabolism
induces muscle glycogen depletion
Tempo Training (aerobic performance)
-intensity
-duration
intensity: 90-95%
duration: 30-120 min
Tempo Training Benefits
good intro into more intense training
increased ability to work at higher threshold for longer
Threshold Training (aerobic performance)
-intensity
-duration
intensity: 95-105%
duration: 20-40 min
Threshold Training Benefits
improves tolerance at anaerobic threshold
increased buffering capabilities
improves economy at AT
Push/Pull Training (aerobic performance)
-intensity
-benefits
intensity: 90-110%
duration: 10-20 min
Push/Pull Training Benefits
increased ability to tolerate lactate
increased ability for pacing at high intensity
able to accelerate pace on demand
Interval Training(Long) (aerobic performance)
-intensity
-duration
intensity: 90-100%
duration: 2-4 min
Interval Training (Long) Benefits
max peripheral adaptations
max cardiac output
increased ability to tolerate lactate build-up
Interval Training (Short) (aerobic performance)
-intensity
-duration
intensity: 100%
duration: 30 sec/rep
Interval Training (short) Benefits
stay at VO2max even during recovery
increase VO2max and threshold
Intermittent Training (aerobic performance)
-intensity
-duration
intensity: above 100%
duration:10-60 sec
Intermittent Training Benefits
economical and pace conscious
may improve neuromuscular control
improves 'kick' ability at end of race
Pace Training Benefits (aerobic performance)
allows break up of target event into smaller pieces so you can train at higher intensities
Strength Training Benefits (aerobic performance)
increase anaerobic power
increase lactate threshold
increase sport performance
Oilers Protocol
VO2 max only
>200 lbs start @ 2.5 kp
<200 lbs start @ 2.0 kp
RPM =75
increase 0.5 kp every 2 min for 3 stages
increase 0.5 kp every 1 min until exhaustion
Art Quinney Protocol
VO2max and VT
start @ 1.0 or 1.5 kp
RPM=80
increase 0.5 kp until past VT
increase 0.5 kp every 1 min until exhaustion
Sport Health Assessment Centre Protocol
VO2max and VT
Females start @ 5-6.5 kp
Males start @ 5.5-7 kp
increasing 0.5kp every 2 min until VT
increase 2% incline every 1 min until exhaustion
Arm Crank Protocol
VO2max and VT
start @ 0.5-1.0 kp
RPM=70
increase 0.5kp every 2 min until exhaustion
Gordon Bell Protocol
VO2max and VT
start @ 80-120 watt
increase 40 watt every 2 min until VT
increase 40 watt every 1 min until exhaustion
Kayak Protocol
VO2max
start at 70 strokes/min
increase by 10 strokes/min every 2 min until exhaustion
Lactate Threshold Protocol
steady state at each level before increase
increase on bike 20-35 watts
increase on treadmill 0.5 mph
How to know if VO2max is achieved?
-plateau in VO2 with increasing workload
- reach max HR
- RER over 1.1
Ventilatory Threshold
disproportionate increase in VCO2 relative to O2 consumption
Phase 1 of HR Training Zones
'Sub Threshold'
5-20 bpm below threshold
Phase 2 of HR Training Zones
'Threshold'
+/- 2 bpm
Phase 3 of HR Training Zones
' 50% + Threshold'
(threshold range + max)/2
Phase 4 of HR Training Zones
VO2max Intensity
max - 5 bpm
Power
maximal rate of energy production during max exercise
Capacity
total amount of energy available to perform exercise in a given energy system
Repetition
distance and/or time for a training rep
Set
a series of repetitions typically followed by a recovery period
Intensity
% of max for that distance and/or time
Power of Anaerobic Alactic/ATP-PC System
1- 10 seconds
Capacity of Anaerobic Alactic/ ATP-PC System
10-20 seconds
Time required for full recovery of PCr?
70% in 30 seconds
100% in 4 minutes
Power of Anaerobic Lactic System
20-35 seconds
Capacity of Anaerobic Lactic System
70-90 seconds
Training Guidelines for power of Anaerobic Endurance System
(intensity and duration)
intensity: 100-110%
duration: 100-200 meters
Training Guidelines for capacity of Anaerobic Endurance System
(intensity and duration)
intensity: 80%
duration: 300-600 meters
Why is a cycle ergometer better then treadmill for testing?
provides more control over resistance
non weight bearing
better transfer to other sports
What results come from a Wingate Test
Peak Power Output: anaerobic alactic power
Mean Power Output: anaerobic alactic capacity
Drop-Off: 'Fatigue Index'
Training Guidelines: Anaerobic Lactic Capacity
intensity: 80-85%
duration: 60-90 sec
W:R = 1:4
reps: 2-3
sets: 2-3
rest btwn sets: 10-20 min
frequency: 2-3 times/wk
Training Guidelines: Anaerobic Lactic Power
intensity: 85-90%
duration: 20-30 sec
W:R = 1:6
reps: 4-8
sets: 2-4
rest btwn sets: 10-15 min
frequency: 2-4 times/wk
Training Guidelines: Anaerobic Alactic Capacity
intensity: 85-95%
duration: 15-30 sec
W:R = 1:6
reps: 4-8
sets: 2-4
rest btwn sets: 10-15 min
frequency: 2-4 times/wk
Training Guidelines: Anaerobic Alactic Power
intensity: 90-100%
duration: 5-10 sec
W:R = 1:10
reps: 2-8
sets: 2-4
rest btwn sets: 5-10 min
frequency: 3-4 times/wk
During which training phase do you use periodization?
mid to late preparatory phase
Acute Overload
short term acute fatigue that occurs immediately post exercise
Duration on Acute Overload
24 hrs to several days
Over Reaching
short term decrement in performance capacity with or w/o related S&S of overtraining
Duration of Over Reaching
several days to several weeks
Over Training
long term decrement in performance with or w/o S&S of overtraining
Duration of Over Training
Several weeks to months
Sports where OR/OT are more common?
ind. sports
self coached sports
high achievers
endurance sports
multi event sports
Factors contributing to OR/OT
lack of sleep
sharp increase in training
lack of rest and recovery
excessive competiveness
ignorant of S&S
Physiological S&S of OT
-under-perofrmance
-loss of quantity and quality of sleep
- changes in HR (increased resting, decreased max)
-excessive sweating
- chronic fatigue
Psychological S&S of OT
- feelings of depression
- loss of competitive drive
- difficulties concentrating
- emotional instability/irritability
- changes in personality
-loss of libido
Immunological S&S of OT
- increased susceptibility of cold/illness/infection/flus
- slower healing of scratches
- decreased # and activity of WBC
- decreased salivary antibodies
Biological S&S of OT
- increased urea levels
- elevated blood CK
- decreased muscle glycogen concentration
- altered hormone levels
- decreased plasma glutamine levels
Central Fatigue Hypothesis
increased FFA = increased tryptophan = increased serotonin levels
Effect of serotonin
induces sleep
decreased motor neurone excitability
--could explain S&S of OT
Energy Intake Hypothesis
negative energy balance during heavy training
inadequate energy has been linked to OT
Level 1 Prevention of OT
On-going day to day monitoring
- diary entries
Level 2 Prevention of OT
Physiological and Psychological Testing
- sport specific, time trials, max testing
- questionnaires
Level 3 Prevention of OT
Biochemical, Haematological, Immunological
- hormone testing, plasma glutamine
- iron status, WBC and RBC counts
- immune cell numbers and activity, antibody levels
Treatment of Overstraining
Self Guided
-rest or light training
- ice, massage, NSAID's
Treatment of Over-Reaching
Coach Sufficient Treatment
- 3-5 days rest
- high CHO diet
- more frequent days off
- return to similar intensity but reduced volume
Treatment of Overtraining Syndrome
Medical Intervention
- completely stop training
- weeks to months off
- diet modifications (CHO and vitamines)
- sleep aids? counciling? retirement?
Polymetrics Def
exercises tat stretch then shorten the muscle tendon unit to accelerate the body or limb
-eccentric action followed by a rapid concentric action
Mechanical Mechanism Model
tendon and tendon structures
contractile elements
titin
Neurophysiological Mechanism Model
muscle spindles
golgi-tendon organs
How much energy does the arch of the foot absorb
17%
How much energy does the a chiles tendon absorb
35%
Action of myosin in concentric movements
myosin neck shortens as actin slides by shortening
Action of myosin in isometric movements
no change in length but myosin neck lengthens
Action of myosin in eccentric movements
actin slides away from myosin(lengthening), stretching myosin neck, myosin has to release to grab hold of actin again
Action of Titin
gets stretched, recoils back to m-line
Action sequence of muscle spindle activation
spindle is stretched -> sends signal to spinal cord -> sends signal to muscle to contract
Where is Golgi Tendon Organ located?
under the muscle tendon junction at both the origin and insertion
What does activation of the Golgi Tendon Organ do?
sends signal to muscle to relax when there is too much tension
Phases of the Stretch Shortening Cycle (SSC)
Phase 1: Eccentric Phase
Phase 2: Amortization Phase
Phase 3: Concentric Phase
Describe Phase 1 of SSC
pre-loading and stretching of muscle
store kinetic energy
Describe Phase 2 of SSC
period of time from initiation of eccentric action to initiation of concentric action
**MUST BE KEPT SHORT
Describe Phase 3 of SSC
stored elastic energy + contraction via stretch reflex + voluntary concentric muscle contraction
Elastic Potential
stretching causes energy to be transformed to elastic component of muscle tendon and stored as potential kinetic energy
What is elastic potential effected by?
time
magnitude of stretch
velocity of stretch
Training Adaptations of Polymetric exercises
integrated EMG
muscle fiber
fiber type
tendon properties
what does integrated EMG mean?
an increase in peak force of muscle unit
How much does type 1 fibres increase in size? type 2? (with polymetric exercise)
type 1: 4.4-6.1&
type 2: 6.8-7.8%
Safety issues with polymetric exercises
proper footwear
pliable surface
do not add weight to athlete
Potential issues of polymeric exercise
soft tissue injury
spinal compressions/ Joint loading
technique must be accurate
In session progression of polymetric exercises
1) general elastic strength
2) max contractile strength work
3) concentric-eccentric actions
4) intense eccentric actions
How to increase intensity of polymetric exercises
raising CoG, moving faster, use single limb, adding resistance
increase complexity