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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
__ is what causes the disease
etiology
liquefactive necrosis usually occurs with
bacterial infections
Alteration in a cell’s functional environment, either acute or chronic, produces a stress to the cell’s ability to attain or maintain ___
homeostasis
When a cell is unable to adapt, injury can occur. After cell injury, the body reacts by initiating the process of ___
inflammation
A __ injury occurs if the stress is small or short in duration, allowing the cell to recover homeostasis after removal of the stress.
reversible
As part of the healing process, the ___ process is responsible for the removal of the injurious agent, removal of cellular debris, & the initiation of the healing process.
inflammatory
The healing process occurs to allow restoration of structure & function whenever possible. return to ___
homeostasis
The two principal phagocytes are ___ and ___ and both are leukocytes.
neutrophils (PMNs) and monocytes
There are five types of leukocytes:
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes and lymphocytes.
cells that circulate in the blood and act as macrophages (when the leave the blood they are called macrophages in the interstitian)
monocytes
reside in tissue (do not circulate in blood). Ingest materials, digest it or present it to lymphocytes
macrophages
T & B cells, travel through the blood and react to foreign agents in the interstition
Lymphocytes
inflammatory mediators: __ proteins promoting clotting
clotting system
inflammatory mediators: __ proteins in chain reaction that cause:
vasodilation- blood to an areas
attract WBC’s
directly attack and destroy microbes
complement
inflammatory mediators: __ interacting proteins that cause:
Vasodilation- blood to the area (bring in things needed and take away bad stuff)
Increased endothelial permeability (increase permeability)
kinin system
These cells promote ___
Histamine
Cytokines
Leukotrienes
Prostaglandins
Bradykinin
Complement
they arise from __ and __ at site of injury. focused on __ intervention
inflamation
mast cells and platelets
pharmacologic
__ occurs, but it doesn’t mean there is and infection. But with an infection there is always __
inflammation x's 2
cell injury:
Abnormal case-destroys __ and things from the outside will leak into the cell and out, develop the __ system causes substance _ which causes pain to the area
fatty acid tails
Kinin
P
__ destroys fatty acid tails
Lipid-peroxidation
in the __ system Antibody creates its own pathway (channel) so everything want to rush into, cell will swell, possibly burst
complement
__ activation:
Damages membrane by breaking apart phospholipids.
2 examples: __ __
also causes too much ___
phospholipase
1. B-toxins contain phospholipases.
2. Too much Ca++ in the cell
fluid to rush into the cell
___ The deposit of Ca salts in an area of damaged tissue.
Classic examples: TB & atherosclerosis
Can occur in soft tissue—calcific tendonOSISwomen > men b/n 30-60 y/o. Shoulder is the primary site.
(Ca actually lays down into the shoulder joint) ultrasound canbreak up calcification
dystrophic calcification
__ (__) This type occurs w/hypercalcemia in tissues. (too much Ca)
Ca is facilitated by parathyroid hormone & vit D.
Hyperparathyroidism—results in increase accumulation of Ca in the pulmonary alveoli, renal tubules, thyroid glands, gastric mucosa, & arterial walls. Ex-renal stones.
Metastatic calcification (spreading)
to achieve complete restoration of function __ must occur
regeneration
When ___ is NOT possible, the body settles for nonfunctional, connective tissue repair (fibrosis or scar tissue). Now that tissue doesn’t move as well
regeneration
nonfunctional, connective tissue helps maintain __ but has none of the functional properties of the original cells & tissues
structural integrity
mechanisms of cell injury: __ Insufficient blood flow results in a critical reduction in oxygen delivery to the tissue that is partial (hypoxia) or total (anoxia-brain injury), a decreased delivery of nutrients, and decreased removal of waste products from the tissue. This leads to loss of aerobic metabolism.
ischemia
mechanisms of cell injury: ___ is usually the result of arterial lumen obstruction (DVT) & narrowing caused by atherosclerosis and/or a intravascular clot called a __ (not moving). When a __ moves it becomes an __ (moving).
ischemia
THROMBUS x's 2
EMBOLUS
mechanisms of cell injury: infections agents, too many lead to __
sepsis
mechanisms of cell injury:
Bacteria, viruses, mycoplasms, fungi, rickettsiae, protozoa, prions, & helminths are __
infectious agents
Mechanisms of cell injury: When microorganisms or their toxins are present in the blood, a condition called __ can occur. In __, endothelial cell damage, loss of plasma volume & maldistribution of blood flow results in __ (not enough blood in the blood vessels). CV collapse may lead to __.
SEPSIS x's 2
hypovolemia
SEPTIC SHOCK
Mechanisms of cell injury: When the immune system becomes overreactive, the result is hypersensitivities ranging from allergies to life threatening anaphylactic reactions or __ disorders (self attacks self).
autoimmune
Mechanisms of cell injury: ___ will cause cell injury through different methods such as: antibody attachment, complement activation, and activation of the inflammatory cells (neutrophils, macrophages, T&B lymphocytes, mast cells & basophils)
immune system
Mechanisms of cell injury: genetic factors lead to cellular injury by 3 primary means:
1. alterations in the structure or number of __ that induce multiple abnormalities (Downs syndrome)
2. ___ that cause changes in the amount of functions of proteins (sickle cell anemia)
3. ___ that interact with environmental factors to cause multifactorial disorders (HTN & DM)
chromosomes
single mutations of genes
multiple gene mutations
Mechanisms of cell injury: Imbalances in essential __ can lead to cell injury or cell death. ex Kwashiorkor and marasmus
nutrients
physical factors of injury:
__ __ __ __
Motor Vehical Acidents
Temperature
Radiation
Electricity
Physical stress theory proposes that changes in the relative level of physical stress cause a predictable __ in all biologic tissue
adaptive response
Mechanical factors: Typical tissue response to __ stress includes decreased stress tolerance (atrophy), maintenance, increased stress tolerance (hypertrophy), injury or death.
physical
Chemical factors: Toxic substances cause chemical injury. Two categories:
Those that can injure cells __ (heavy metals like Mercury)
Those that require __ into the toxic agent (Carbon tetrachloride & acetaminophen)
directly
metabolic transformation
__ an important part of metabolism and formed continuously in the body.
They exert __ effects (immune system) __ effects (lipid, protein, pr DNA oxidation)
free radicals
positive
negative
The presence of __ is an adaptive response to help the body ward off the potentially harmful effects of oxygen and its derivatives, including free radicals.
antioxidants
__ a variety of enzymatic & nonenzymatic defense mechanisms are present in cells and act as antioxidants (we make them)
endogenous antioxidants
__ taken through our diet. Vitamin C, E, and beta carotene are the 3 most important. There are over 200. (take them in) attack free radicals
exogenous antioxidants
complement activation occurs with which type of cell injury
immune
TB and atherosclerosis are examples of what type of calcification
dystrophic calcification