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82 Cards in this Set

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structures involved in stress response

hypothalamus sends to pituitary which releases to adrenal medulla which goes to blood stream`

effect of stress on body (4)

decreases vessels in periphery, increases coaguability of the blood, retains fluid, mobilized energy for muscles

triune brain

neocortex, mammalian brain (limbic), reptilian brain (brain stem)

effects of cortisol (8)

counteracts insulin, increases gluconeogenesis, suppresses immune system, reduces bone formation, inhibits memory and learning, increases blood pressure, shuts down reproductive system, creates an inflammatory response

why to dope with sortisone or ACTH

makes energy availible for muscles and increases cardiovascular response

largests causes of death in US

cancer, heart disease, other, stroke

largest killers/disablers of women

heart disease, depression, cerebrovascular disease, COPD

largest killers disablers of men

heart disease, traffic accidents, cancer (lung), HIV/AIDS, alocohol use

most common deaths from traumatic injury

motor vehicle, poisoning, firearms, other, suffocation

MVA

leading cause of death between 5-34, seatbelts lower mortality (air bag alone not enough)

severity of burn determined by

depth, percentage of body burned (dehydration), inhalation of smoke in lungs/burned lungs, speed of treatment

symptoms of hypothermia

lethargic, confused, hallucinate, death due to cardiac arrhythmia/arrest

hyperthermia

first cramps, then exhaustion with profuse sweating, then stroke, death due to seizure, DIC, coma, kidney failure (rhabdomyolosis)

leading cause of accidental poisoning deaths

carbon monoxide

most toxic exposure deaths are due to

drug overdose

why children should not take aspirin

reye syndrome

aspirin can lead to

ulcers

if you quit smoking before ___ life normal life expectancy

30

if you quit later in life

risk of CVD falls by 50% in one year but cancer takes 15-20 years to return to normal

moderate alcohol use

increases HDLs, decreases thrombogenesis

percentage of alcohol users that abuse it

5%

cancers associated with alcohol abuse

mouth, throat, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, kidney, bladder

narcotics

opium-derived drugs

hallucinogens

lsd, mescaline, marijuana

metabolic syndrome

high blood pressure, blood abnormalities (glucose, low HDL, high triglycerides), large waist (>40 males, >35 females)

dependent

physiological need for the drug, narcotics

addicted

psychological, cocaine and marijuna

disease risks with obesity

30% increased risk of cancer, 90% increased risk of cardiovasular disease, 250% increased risk of diabetes

opiate drugs

pain relievers, physical and emotional

stimulants like cocaine, meth

increases dopamine, motivates

addiction defined by video

negative consequences, relapse into it, crave, short term pleasure

biggest driver of drug use

stress

epigenetics

turning genes on and off leading to disease

glucacorticoids

damage hippocampus, estrogen protects against

excess glucagon

causes neuronal death, can be lessened with exercise

cotisol

inhibits body from taking up glucose, hippocampal cells die from not taking up glucose, cortisol is response to stress

what makes life stressful

no outlet, no control, unpredictable, no social support, believe things will get worse

ideal glucocorticoid levels

high in life threatening situation, low whenever else

what is the most important determinant of stress

personality:


can you tell good event from bad, can you gain control, can you tell if youve won or lost, coping when you lose




instability overrides rank though

osteoblasts

lay down bone

osteoclasts

dissolve bone

red marror

produces RBC, mainly in ribs and vertebrae and pelvis

bone laid down depends on

mechanical stresses, calcium and phosphate levels, hormone/vitamin levels

hematopoietic disorders

bone marrow disorders

pseudoarthrosis

nonunion that develops into a joint-like space

osteomylitis

infection, usually bacterial, usually due to truma or IV drug use




in kids usually blood born from somewhere else, mostly invovled epiphysis




TB can also infect bone

oseonecrosis

aka avascular necrosis, aseptic (without infection), tends to happen in areas with poor blood supply, primarily affects long bones - Chandler's disease (femoral head)

osteoporosis

loss of bone mass, quantitative but not qualitative loss, predisposes to fracture, estrogen protects

primary osteoporosis

not enough bone laid down in early years, small thin people

secondary osteoporosis

cortisol use, calcium deficiency, blood thinner use, metastatic cancer, celiac disease, vitamin D deficiency

Paget's disease

get extra bone laid down but it is a poor quality

osteomalaccia

failure to mineralize usually due to calcium or vitamin D eficiency, in kids called rickets

bone tumors

rare, usually from cancer somewhere else, mostly occur around the knee when primary (<20 years of age), benign is not likely to become cancer, good survivability if caught early

primary OA

normal with age, proteoglycans become dehydrated, often asymptomatic

secondary OA

comes from known cause, like trauma, overuse with high torsional load, has dose relationship, often asymptomatic, inflammation uncommon until it becomes advanced, osteophytes appear and bone gets denser

2nd most common cause of bone disease

paget's disease

cartilage forming tumors

benign are not precancerous, rare for it to be cancerous, surgery is only treatment

RA

genetic, systemic autoimmune disease affecting synovial joints, pannus forms, get synovitis progressing to ankylosis, mostly T-lymphocyte but some B-lympho

ankylosing spondylitis

autoimmune inflammatory arthritis without RF, bamboo spine

reactive arthritis

GU or intestinal infections lead to aseptic arthritis

psoriatic arthritis

with psoriasis

gout

chronic disease of build up of uric acid

acute septic arthritis

bacterial infection usually in persons with depressed immune system

periarticular pain syndrome (5)

degerative disc, spondylolisthesis, bursitis, tendonitis and tenosynovitis, fibromyalgia

slow twitch muscle fiber

type I, mostly oxidative

fast twitch muscle fiber

type IIa and IIx, mostly gycolitic

satellite cells

can form new muscle cells with necrosis, have role in repair and hypertrophy

repeated bout effect

the more times you do an exercise the easier it gets

muscle is resistant

to infection

neurogenic atrophy

all fiber types affected, can be with injury or peripheral neuropathy like diabetes

disuse atrophy

affects type II more, type I tend to shift to type IIx, most change is type IIa to type IIx, lose oxidativ capacity aka more easily fatigued

sarcopenia

age-related loss of muscle, starts with women in 40s and men in 60s, due to deconditioning, change in muscle metabolism, hormones/nutrition, loss of motorneurons

myopathy

nonspecific muscle weakness secondary to an identifiable cause, hereditary like muscular dystrophy or acquired like diabetes or alcoholism

myositis

inflammatory myopathies, can be idiopathic (maybe autoimmune), infectious agent (HIV) or bacterial from trauma

autoimmune diseases that can produce myositis

dermatomyositis, polymyositis, RA

muscular dystrophy

hereditary, non-inflammatory, progressive wasting of stiated muscle, early in life exhaust satellite cells

Duchenne & Becker Muscular deficiency

linked to recessive gene, absence of dystrophin, have Gower's sign (pelvic and scapular weakness), connective tissue replaces muscle

rhabdomyolysis

large amount of muscle necrosis, often due to trauma or chemical damage, leads to lots of creatine kinase and myoglobin in blood/urine, can lead to renal failure due to shock, K+ leak may cause arrhythmias

most common soft tissue tumor

lipoma, baker's cyst on back of knee

rhabdomyoma

rare, in infants, tumor of striated muscle

malignant fibroud histiocytoma

most common soft tissue cancer, tight and retroperitoneum (abdomen), 50% metastasize

heterotropic ossification

bone formation where it shouldn't be, myositis ossificans, can be treated with radiation, surgery, NSAID, usually caused by trauma or surgery, burn or amputation