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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 3 layers of the blood vessels?
1. tunica intima
2. tunica media
3. tunica adventitia
tunica intimia:
-inner layer
-elastic layer
-thin, smooth glistening surface
tunica media:
-middle layer
-primarily in arteries
-large, smooth muscle layer
-constricts to control diameter of blood vessel
tunica adventitia:
-outer layer
-thickest layer in veins
-supports the vessel
-sends blood to tissues and cells and back again
-made of a single thickness endothelial cells
-contains tiny pores that vary by size according to the location in the body
-endothelial cells located in the brain that form a tight junctions preventing substances that would alter neural excitability from leaving the capillary
-brain cells are more supceptible to waste products
-located in the kidneys
-glomerular capillaries have these small openings that pass directly thru the middle of the endothelial cells
-larger capillary pores than blood-brain barrier
-serve almost all body tissues, except cartilage, bone, epithelial tissue and tissue of CNS
-structure is similar to veins
Does resistance increase or decrease with vessel length?
Does resistance increase or decrease with an increase in diameter?
Does resistance increase or decrease with viscosity?
Will an increase in a cross-sectional area increase or decrease velocity?
(mostly located in capillary bed)
-an audible murmur heard over a peripheral artery
-caused by turbulent blood flow
-suggests obstructive arterial disease
palpable murmur
What is 10% of interstitial fluid picked up by in the body?
-lymphatic obstruction and increased capillary permeability
List 4 factors that move blood back to the heart thru the venous system.
1. skeletal muscle contraction
2. valves and veins
3. negative intrapleural pressure; "sucking"
4. intraabdominal pressure
List the 2 mechanisms used during blood flow.
1. extrinsic mechanism
2. intrinsic mechanism
-accumulation of fluid in the lymph tissue caused by backflow of fluid
5 Causes of blood vessel obstruction:
1. thrombosis
2. embolus formation
3. vasospasm
4. inflammation
5. mechanical compression
Types of emboli:
fat, air, bacteria, amniotic fluid (pregnancy)
What is the most likely cause of sudden death?
pulmonary edema
How would a pt have a fat emboli?
from a long bone fracture from injury or trauma
Where is the most common location for an embolus formation?
mostly from legs or pelvis to lungs
-inflammation of a vein in junction with the formation of a thrombus
-usually occurs in an extremity, esp leg.
-clotting in a vein
-phlebitis with secondary thrombosis
-spasm of a blood vessel
-Ex: angina is a vasospasm of an abnormal artery
-inflammation of a vein
-inflammation of an artery
-disease of te arterial vessels
-thickening, hardening and loss of elasticity in the arterial walls
Explain valvular incompetence.
-heart valves are stenotic or insufficient
-valve is not completely shut, causes back pressure leading to edema
-weakening of the vessel wall
-"What is the risk of rupture?"
3 types of aneurysms:
1. fusiform (found in abdominal aorta)
2. saccular (aka Berry)
3. dissecting (artificial hole in the wall of artery
Can you have insufficiency without stenosis?
Can you have stenosis without insufficiency?
What size is the aneurysm when it's dilation is critical?
5 1/2 cm
arteriovenous fistula:
aka AV fistula
-abnormal tubelike passage btn an artery and a vein
-can be congenital or due to trauma
Types of sclerosis:
1. Monckeberg's sclerosis
2. arteriolar sclerosis
3. arteriosclerosis
Monckeberg's sclerosis:
-calcium deposits formed in the media (muscle wall)
-no reduction in blood flow results
aka atherosclerosis
-cause of peripheral vascular disease (PVD)in medium to large arteries resulting in decreased blood flow
-most common in vessels of lower extremities, esp femoral and popliteal
arteriolar sclerosis:
-disease causes small arteries to thicken
-cause of HTN
What is a common secondary cause of HTN?
renal stenosis
Types of arteries:
cerebral, coronary, femoral, aorta
aka low-density lipids
-norm: <130 mg/dl
-proliferates muscle cells in the artery
-excess cholesterol is stored in the arteries
aka high-density lipids
-norm: >200 mg/dl
-moves cholesterol from the arterial walls to liver
-more is better
-lipid filled smooth muscle cells found in collagen
-detours made as a compensatory mechanism in the body
-2 types: body-made and man-made
List 4 main risk factors associated with arteriosclerosis.
1. smoking (d/t vasoconstriction)
2. high BP
3. cholesterol
4. obesity
List 5 minor risk factors associated with arteriosclerosis.
1. diabetes
2. stress
3. male sex
4. family history
5. estrogen effect
Clinical diagnosis for arteriosclerosis:
1. body assessment by systems
2. Doppler flow studies
3. ultrasound
4. ankle-brachial index (pressures) with <1 as abnormal
5. angiography
List 5 treatments for arteriosclerosis.
1. balloon angioplasty
2. laser angioplasty
3. endarterectomy
5. treatment contributing factors
aka Thromboangitis Obliterans
aka Buerger's disease
-inflammatory arterial disorder that causes thrombus formation
-common in young male smokers btn 25-40 YO
-relieved by resting
Raynaud's Syndrome:
-temporary pallor or cyanosis of the arteries/arterioles of the fingers
-common in females in cold temperatures
-no tissue damage involved
Treatment for Raynaud's syndrome:
calcium channel blockers for vasodilation
4 treatments for acute arterial occlusion:
1. surgical emergency
2. anticoagulatio theory
3. treatment run-off
4. possible amputation
valvular incompetency:
-typically in superficial vericose veins
-d/t prolonged standing, pregnancy, obesity
-tx: stockings, sclerotherapy, ligation and stripping
-can lead to chronic venous insufficiency
chronic venous insufficiency:
-involves deep veins
-can cause deep vein disease
tx for lymphedema:
causes thickened skin - elastic stockings and compression devices