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125 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Spontaneous process
takes place naturally with no apparent cause or stimulus
Nonspontaneous process
Requires that something be done for it to occur
ability to do work
2 factors that influence spontaneity
entropy-measure of disorder or the randomness of the system S --> G
enthalpy-energy gained/lost when a change takes place under constant pressure
force applied to an object
types of energy
thermal, electrical, mechanical, chemical, nuclear & radiant
potential energy
stored energy
kinetic energy
energy of motion
chemical rxn
old bonds break
new bonds form
energy is absorbed or released
energy is released, bonds MORE stable
energy is required, bonds LESS stable
study of the rate of the rxn
intensive property of a material
thermal energy
energy of motion of molecules, atoms and ionsq
thermal energy transfer; goes from hot --> cold
Parts of a neuron
1.cell body(soma)2.dendrite 3.axon (nucleus, node of ranvier, myelin sheath)
region between adjacent neurons; impulses transmitted across synapses
parts of synapse
synaptic cleft
relay impulses to synapse
receptors for nerve autoregulation
NT released via exocytosis
away from synapse
end organ receptors
-nerve to nerve
-nerve to muscle (motor end plate)
-nerve to organ
Inhibitory NT
-Endorphins & Enkephalins
Excitatory NT
-Glutamate & aspartate
-Substance P
E or I NT
Supporting cells-PNS
Schwann cells
Satellite cells
Supporting cells-CNS
Schwann cells
required for regeneration of peripheral nerves, have myelin sheath(white matter)-nerve growth, insulation for conduction (none of ranvier & saltatory conduction)
Satellite cells
peripheral neuron cell bodies bundled in ganglia; separate the cell bodies and processes from connective tissue of ganglion
bridge-transports gasses back and forth, contain microfibrils that become gliosis scar tissue
deposit myelin in CNS; neurotrophic factors; insulation for conduction
remove debris in the CNS; phagocytotic-can move around
line the neural tube cavity-ventricular system
combine with vascualture to form choroid plexus-CSF
neuron excitability
change resting membrane potential as as result of electrochemical stimuli-inside more (-)
resting membrane potential
-70 to -85mV; maintain by ative transport of K+ and Na+; more permeable to K+, net charge due to intracellular anion excess
Action potential
1. electrochemical stimulus
2. threshold potential
3. depolarization
4. repolarization
-absolute refractory period
-relative refractory period
threshold potential
small depolarization due to open voltage sensitive Na
membranes become more permeable to extracellular Na
voltage gated Na channels close; K channels open
Na stops entering; K exits
absolute refractory period
first 3rd of repolarization
relative refractory period
remining portion of repolarization here stimulus can affect action potential
Sigma, delta, mu, kappa-endorphins & enkephalins
Receptors cont.
Sub P-substance P
Alpha, beta-(nor)ephinephrine
Muscarinic or Nicotinic-Acetylcholine
What is function of receptor
help trigger an action potential so NT can be transferred from one neuron to next
Sequence of events in nerve firing
nerve A releases NT, triggers action potential via receptors due to release of Na+ ions
development of nervous system
endoderm/ectoderm-first 2 wks
ectoderm forms mesoderm-wk 3
mesoderm forms notochord
form neural plate-wk 3
plate develops groove that forms neural tube-wk 4
tube develops into CNS
notochord forms vertebral column
Six stages of embryonic development
1.dorsal(posterior) induction
2.ventral(anterior) induction
basic organization of Brain
medulla oblongata
Medulla oblongata
temporal and spatial smoothing
voluntary mvmts limb, trunk, head, larynx, eyes
Efferent CN III & IV
diencephalon, hemispheres, basal ganglia, 4 lobes, limbic system
Spinal cord
Segments-33 of SC; 10 brain
Longitudinal tracts
run //
dorsal horn column
ventral horn column
dorsal horn column
sensory nerves
general somatic afferent-skin
special visceral afferent-GI related, taste, smell
general visceral afferent-GI bladder, heart, vessels
ventral horn colums
contain OA neurons and LMNs
general visceral efferent-ANS
pharyngeal eff-brachail arch, skeletal muscles, chew
general somatic eff-somite:musles of head/body, motor activity, LMNs-lower motor neurons
longitudinal tracts
origin then destination
sensory-bring in
motor-info out
What is a neuron?
Specialized cell of the Nervous system that shares many of the same metabolic activities and constituents as other types of cells (McCance p364)
What are Dendrites?
extensions that carry nerve impulses toward the cell body.
What are Microfilaments / neurofibrils?
composed of structural proteins which are responsible for structural support within the cell and movement of neuron processes
What are Microtubules?
proteins believed to be involved in the transport of cellular products
What are Nissl substances?
consist of endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes which are involved in protein synthesis
What are neural nuclei?
dense, packed cell bodies in the Central Nervous System
What are Ganglia / plexuses?
groups of cell bodies in the PNS.
What is the Dendritic zone?
receptive portion of a neuron that receives a stimulus and continues further conduction
What are Axons?
long, conductive projections from the cell body that carry nerve impulses away from the cell body
What is the Axon hillock?
cone-shaped, nissl-free area where the axon leaves the cell body.
What is myelin?
segmented layer of a lipid material
What is the myelin sheath?
Entire membrane around an axon. This membrane includes the myelin layer as well as other compounds.
What is the Endoneurium?
delicate connective tissue around each axon
What is the Neurilemma / Schwann Sheath?
the thin layer between the myelin sheath and the endoneurium
What are the Nodes of Ranvier?
regular intervals where the myelin sheath and the neurolemma are interupted
What is a Schwann cell?
forms and maintains the myelin sheath, and the nodes of Ranvier form spaces on either side of the Schwann cell.
What is Salutatory conduction?
mechanism where myelin acts as an insulator that allows ions to flow between segments rather than along the entire length of the membrane, resulting in increased velocity.
What is Divergence?
ability of branching neurons to influence many different neurons.
What is Convergence?
branches of numerous neurons converging on and influencing one or a few neurons
What are Sensory neurons?
carry impulses from peripheral sensory receptors TO the Central Nervous System.
What are Association neurons?
carry impulses from neuron to neuron, such as sensory to motor neurons
What are Motor neurons?
transmit impulses FROM the Central Nervous System to an effector organ.
What is Neuroglia?
“nerve glue”, it is the general classification of cells that support the neurons of the Central Nervous System.
What is a synapse?
The region between adjacent neurons.
What are the parts of the synapse?
Synaptic bouton -> synaptic cleft -> postsynaptic membrane
What is the reflex arc and its components?
It provides protective circuitry for motor output to respond to stimuli. At minimum, it contains an afferent neuron, an efferent neuron and an effector muscle or gland.
What is the withdrawal reflex?
It is a ‘spinal reflex”. It is an automated response to protect the body from an overwhelming stimulus, such as pulling hand off and away from a hot stove.
List the layers of membranes, bones, and fluid protecting the brain, in the proper order.
Skin -> Muscle -> Periosteum -> Skull -> Epidural Space -> Periosteum -> Dura Mater -> Arachnoid Space -> Subdural Space -> Subarachnoid Space -> Pia Mater
What is the function of the blood brain barrier?
To selectively inhibit certain substances in the blood from entering the interstitial spaces of the brain or CSF.
What are the neurotransmitters of the sympathetic nervous system?
Primarily norepinephrine
What are the neurotransmitters of the parasympathetic nervous system?
Acetylcholine (Ach)
What is the NMJ?
The junction where the neuron conducts to a muscle.
list the major types of foreign agents and their characteristics
Bacteria, Viruses, Prion's, Fungus, parasites
List the characteristics of Bacteria.
Bacteria – unicellular organisms that have an outer coating or cell wall in addition to a plasma membrane but no or few intracellular organelles.
List the characteristics of viruses.
Viruses – consist of nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA) surrounded by protein coat.
i. DNA is inserted into the host’s DNA
ii. Unlike bacteria, viruses lack both the enzymatic machinery for metabolism and the ribosomes essential for protein synthesis. Thus:
iii. Cannot replicate on their own.
List the characteristics of Prion's.
Prion – “infectious” protein responsible for Creutzfeld-Jakob disease and Kuru in humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy or mad cow disease in animals normal structural protein that is found in most cells but has assumed an abnormal shape
Fungal infections are usually self limiting and limited to skin or subcutaneous tissues
List the types of Parasites.
protozoa, helminths and arthropods
List the characteristics of Parasites.
i. Protozoa are unicellular animals with well defined cell membrane, nucleus and organelles – responsible for diseases such as malaria, amebic dysentery, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis
ii. Helminths – worm-like parasites including roundworms, tapeworm, and flukes
iii. Arthropods – include vectors of infectious diseases (such as mosquitoes, lice and fleas) as well as ectoparasites including mites (scabies), and lice (head, body, pubic)
define incidence.
the number of new cases that occur in a defined population (eg., per 100000) over a period of time (yearly)
Define Portal of Entry.
How a disease is introduced into an organism.
List the four portals of entry
Penetration, direct contact, ingestion, inhalation.
Describe / define the four portals of entry.
i. Penetration - direct entry through a defect in skin or mucous membranes
ii. direct contact - Classic example include the STD’s. Can also include vertical transmission from mother to child
iii. ingestion - entry through the oral cavity - classic examples include food poisoning (bacterial), fecal-oral ingestion of viral particles (hepatitis, Norwalk and Rotavirus)
iv. inhalation – bacterial, viral and fungal
Define source.
the location, host, object or substance from which the infectious agent was acquired
Define symptomatology.
signs and symptoms expressed by the host. Also referred to as the clinical picture or disease presentation.
List the five normal stages of Disease Course.
divided into distinguishable stages after entry of the pathogen. Incubation period, prodromal stage and acute stage, Convalescent period, Resolution.
Define incubation period.
the pathogen begins active replication – may be short (hours) or prolonged (6 months – hepatitis)
Define prodromal stage.
the initial appearance of symptoms which may be quite vague
Define acute stage.
period when the patient experiences the maximum symptoms
Define Convalescent period.
characterized by containment of the pathogen and elimination – may last for days, weeks or months
Define Resolution stage.
total elimination of the pathogen without residual signs or symptoms of the disease
Define site of infection.
Where the symptoms of the infection are primarily located.
Define virulence factors.
substances or products that are generated by infectious agents that enhance their ability to cause disease
Define diagnosis.
In order to diagnose a pathogen, need to recover the pathogen or find evidence of its presence from the infected site and document of the clinical signs and symptoms
Define treatment.
Attempts to rid the organism of the infectious agent.
Describe genital warts.
Caused by the human papilloma **virus** - up to 33 different viruses displaying varying virulence to humans
Describe genital herpes.
Caused by HVH II **virus**. infections are painful and annoying to adults, but life threatening to fetus or infants.
Describe gonorrhea.
causative agent: Neisseria gonorrhoeae **bacteria**. in men, purulent urethritis usually develops. Women are frequently asymptomatic but can also have the same symptoms
Describe Chlamydia.
Most commonly transmitted STD. **Bacterial**. People have the disease without knowing
Describe Syphilis.
Seen less frequently but more serious STD and occurrence is on the rise. **Bacterial**.
Briefly summarize the cell cycle.
G0 – resting phase
Interphase – consists of G1, S and G2
G1 – post-mitosis, DNA synthesis ends, RNA and protein synth, cell growth.
S – DNA synth yields two sets of chromosomes
G2 – pre-mitosis, DNA synthesis ends, RNA and protein synth
M – Mitosis has 3 outcomes:
Non-duplicating cell permanent and no re-entry into G1.
Reenter G1
Enter G0 (resting) and then reenter G1
Define cellular proliferation.
cell division for reproduction
Define cell differentiation.
preset and programmed expression of genes at certain part of cell growth to ‘turn-on’ specific new genes for discrete cell types.
What is a stem cell?
incompletely differentiated reserve cells that are quiescent until a need arises.
Define neoplasia.
abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth and division.
Distinguish malignant neoplasia from benign neoplasia.
Benign – still resemble origin tissue, non-metastasizing, regular borders, semi-encapsulated which usually makes excision easier.

Malignant – do not resemble origin tissue, usually metastasizes, irregular borders, usually leads to death if not treated.
What is anaplasia?
loss of differentiation
What is contact inhibition?
the normal cessation of cell division and growth caused by physical contact with other cells. This normal end to cell division does not function when cancer is present, resulting in uncontrolled reproduction of cells.