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40 Cards in this Set

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Balance, equilibrium, harmony


▫Overall process of adaptive changenecessary to achieve homeostasis

General Adaptation Syndrome

GAS has the 3 phases:

1) Alarm phase: Initial phase, fight or flight (too much of this phase can do harm to the body)

2)Resistance phase:normalization of glucocorticoid secretion, resolution of fight or flight, return body back to normal

3) Exhaustion phase: if body doesn't adapt, organism will die

Catecholamines vs Glucocorticoids

Catecholamines: have a very profound effect on the body (epinephrine and norepinephrine)


Glucocorticoids: metabolism and glucose use; supports catecholamines response

Cells are bound by ________

The plasma membrane

Lipid Bilayer

Highly impermeable to water-soluble molecules

Only lipid-soluble molecules can cross freely

Membrane proteins

Transport charged ions in and out of cells

Perform most of membrane funtion

Cellular metabolism:

Every cell has to make its own energy which is _________--


is not stored

Is syntheseized by breakdown of fat and glycogen

Most adults have 1 day supply of glycogen stores in muscle and liver. Enough fat stores for a month. Fat is stored in adipose tissue.

What are the 2 phases of cellular metabolism

1) Anabolism:



2) Catabolism



*breakdown of sugar molecules

*Citric acid cycle (Kreb's)

Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs cycle)

*In this cycle, glycolysis happens in mitochondria

*Pyruvate (end product of glycolysis) causes formation of CO2

*Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is produced

*Hydrogen ions are pumped from mitochondria

*End result: ATP is available to drive a variety of energy-requiring reactions within the cell

Transport of Macromolecules

Endocytosis: cellular ingestion of extracellular molecules


Exocytosis: cellular secretion (getting rid of waste)

Two types of Endocytosis

1) Pinocytosis: cellular drinking

2 Phagocytosis: cellular eating

Transport of small molecules

1) ATP driven pumps: important for all cellular processes

2) Carriers

3) Channel proteins

Active vs Passive Transport

1) Active transport (pumps)

*protein pumps that move solutes/ions across the membrane against electrochemical or concentration gradient

2) Passive transport

*facilitated diffusion

Sodium-Potassium Ion Pump

*1/3 of ATP requirements of cell

*High Potassium inside cell

*High Sodium outisde cell

*If too much sodium inside, your cells can swell and burst

Cells respond to stressors in the environment in 3 ways:

1) Reversible Injury

2) Adaptation to Injury

3) Irreversible Injury

Reversible Cell Injury


Hydropic swelling is the first manifestation of injury due to accumulation of water

This results f/ failure of Na+/K+ pump

*results in too much Na+ in cell

*will cause organ to swell and enlarge "megaly"

Reversible Cell Injury: Intracellular Accumulations

Accumulation of normal or abnormal intracellular substances (too much of a good thing):

*Lipids (fats)




Cause by:

*excessive amounts of normal substances

*faulty synthesis results in excessive storage

*lack of enzyme to breakdown substances

*fatty liver (caused by too much alcohol)

Cellular Adaptation (Still reversible)

Adaptation happens w/ persistent stress

Cellular Adaptation: Atrophy

Decrease in cell size

Cellular Adaptation: Hypertrophy

Increase in cell size

Cellular Adaptation: Hyperplasia

Increase in cell number

Cellular Adaptation: Metaplasia

Conversion of one cell type to another

Ex: smoking cells in bronchial airways change to better accomodate

Cellular Adaptation: Dysplasia

Disorganized appearance of cells (size, shape, arrangement)

Is a precursor to cancer (can be reversible treated)

Preneoplastic (pre-abnormal "new growth")

Irreversible Cellular Injury

Injury is too severe or prolonged to allow adaptation or repair and reversal

Irreversible Cellular Injury:

Necrosis vs Apoptosis


*Tissue and cell death, external injury

*Intracellular contents are released into bloodstream

*Ex: Myocardial infarction-elevated Troponin level



*Cells are regulated by cell birth and death

Programmed cell death w/o Necrosis

*Ex: RBC lifespan


*usually good but can be bad

Etiology (cause of) of cellular injury

Ischemia and hypoxic injury

*All living cells must receive oxygen to produce ATP and survive

*hypoxia-lack of O2 in TISSUE (Ischemia)

*Hyypoxemia- lack of O2 in BLOOD


*alcoholism, low iron

Infectious and immunologic



*toxins or free radicals

Physical and mechanical

*extreme temps or radiation

The suffix 'emia':


Cellular Aging: Free radical theory

Result of accumulated metabolic cell damage over time which leads to cell death

Cellular Aging: Somatic vs Brain death

Somatic death: entire organism death

*Absence of respiration or heart beat

Brain death: absence of brain stem reflexes

*Unresponsive, flaccid, absence of swallowing, gagging, etc

*Technology can keep us alive

*Criteria varies w/ geographic area


Abnormal "new growth"

*Tumor (mass)


*Malignant (cancer)


Lack of differentiated features in a cancer cell

*Tumor doesn't act like the organ that it is in


Movement of cancer cell to distant site. Always a sign of malignancy

TNM: Grading and staging

Tumor size

Lymph Node affected

Degree of Metastasis

Suffixes: "oma" vs "carcin"

Oma: benign-few exceptions:




Carcin: cancerous-malignant

Cancer (CA)

*Second leading cause of all deaths in US

*Most cancer is preventable

*Genetic Mechanisms of Cancer (CA)


*Mutant, overactive gene

*Tumor suppressor genes

*Normally inhibit cell proliferation

Cancer Screening Guidelines


*Women 20+ Self Breast Examination (SBE) education

*20-30 Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) @ least every 3 yrs

*40-50 Begin annual mammography


*Women & men 50+ Colonoscopy every ten years

*FOBT yearly


*Men 50+ PSA and or DRE


Women 21+ Pap test every 1-2 yrs

Cancer-related checkup

*Men and women 20+ yearly physical

Effects of Cancer (CA) on the body

Cachexia: weight loss and weakness

Bone marrow suppression:

*Leukopenia: decreased WBC

*Thrombocytopenia: decreased platelet count

*Anemia: decreased RBC

Opportunistic infections

Cancer Therapy

Surgery: remove lump

Radiation: isolate one area (if surgery doesn't get it all, radiation will)

Chemotherapy: cytotoxic to ALL cell (good and bad). Affects cells that rapidly divide: (bone marrow, intestinal epithela, hair follicles)

Stem cell transplantation


7 Early signs of Cancer (CA) for Adults


Change in bowel or bladder habits

A sore that does not heal

Unusual bleeding or discharge

Thickening or a lump in the breasts, testicles, or elsewhere

Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing

Obvious change in the size, color, shape, or thickness of a wart, mole or mouth sore

Nagging cough or hoarseness

8 Cancer (CA) warning signs in Children

Continued, unexplained weight loss

Headaches w/ vomiting in the morning

Increased swelling or persistent pain in bones or joints

Development of whitish appearance in pupil of the eye

Recurrent fevers not caused by infections

Excessive bleeding or bruising

Noticeable paleness or prolonged tiredness