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40 Cards in this Set

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Homeostasis

Balance, equilibrium, harmony

Allostasis

▫Overall process of adaptive changenecessary to achieve homeostasis

General Adaptation Syndrome

GAS has the 3 phases:


1) Alarm phase: Initial phase, fight or flight (too much of this phase can do harm to the body)


2)Resistance phase:normalization of glucocorticoid secretion, resolution of fight or flight, return body back to normal


3) Exhaustion phase: if body doesn't adapt, organism will die

Catecholamines vs Glucocorticoids

Catecholamines: have a very profound effect on the body (epinephrine and norepinephrine)


vs.


Glucocorticoids: metabolism and glucose use; supports catecholamines response

Cells are bound by ________

The plasma membrane

Lipid Bilayer

Highly impermeable to water-soluble molecules


Only lipid-soluble molecules can cross freely

Membrane proteins

Transport charged ions in and out of cells


Perform most of membrane funtion

Cellular metabolism:


Every cell has to make its own energy which is _________--

ATP:


is not stored


Is syntheseized by breakdown of fat and glycogen


Most adults have 1 day supply of glycogen stores in muscle and liver. Enough fat stores for a month. Fat is stored in adipose tissue.

What are the 2 phases of cellular metabolism

1) Anabolism:


*energy-using


*synthesis


2) Catabolism


*energy-releasing


*glycolysis


*breakdown of sugar molecules


*Citric acid cycle (Kreb's)

Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs cycle)

*In this cycle, glycolysis happens in mitochondria


*Pyruvate (end product of glycolysis) causes formation of CO2


*Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is produced


*Hydrogen ions are pumped from mitochondria




*End result: ATP is available to drive a variety of energy-requiring reactions within the cell

Transport of Macromolecules

Endocytosis: cellular ingestion of extracellular molecules


vs.


Exocytosis: cellular secretion (getting rid of waste)

Two types of Endocytosis

1) Pinocytosis: cellular drinking


2 Phagocytosis: cellular eating

Transport of small molecules

1) ATP driven pumps: important for all cellular processes


2) Carriers


3) Channel proteins

Active vs Passive Transport

1) Active transport (pumps)


*protein pumps that move solutes/ions across the membrane against electrochemical or concentration gradient


2) Passive transport


*facilitated diffusion

Sodium-Potassium Ion Pump

*1/3 of ATP requirements of cell


*High Potassium inside cell


*High Sodium outisde cell


*If too much sodium inside, your cells can swell and burst

Cells respond to stressors in the environment in 3 ways:

1) Reversible Injury


2) Adaptation to Injury


3) Irreversible Injury

Reversible Cell Injury

Swelling


Hydropic swelling is the first manifestation of injury due to accumulation of water


This results f/ failure of Na+/K+ pump


*results in too much Na+ in cell


*will cause organ to swell and enlarge "megaly"

Reversible Cell Injury: Intracellular Accumulations

Accumulation of normal or abnormal intracellular substances (too much of a good thing):


*Lipids (fats)


*carbs


*glycogen


*proteins


Cause by:


*excessive amounts of normal substances


*faulty synthesis results in excessive storage


*lack of enzyme to breakdown substances


*fatty liver (caused by too much alcohol)

Cellular Adaptation (Still reversible)

Adaptation happens w/ persistent stress



Cellular Adaptation: Atrophy

Decrease in cell size

Cellular Adaptation: Hypertrophy

Increase in cell size

Cellular Adaptation: Hyperplasia

Increase in cell number

Cellular Adaptation: Metaplasia

Conversion of one cell type to another


Ex: smoking cells in bronchial airways change to better accomodate

Cellular Adaptation: Dysplasia

Disorganized appearance of cells (size, shape, arrangement)


Is a precursor to cancer (can be reversible treated)


Preneoplastic (pre-abnormal "new growth")

Irreversible Cellular Injury

Injury is too severe or prolonged to allow adaptation or repair and reversal

Irreversible Cellular Injury:


Necrosis vs Apoptosis

Necrosis:


*Tissue and cell death, external injury


*Intracellular contents are released into bloodstream


*Ex: Myocardial infarction-elevated Troponin level




vs




Apoptosis:


*Cells are regulated by cell birth and death


Programmed cell death w/o Necrosis


*Ex: RBC lifespan


*Internal


*usually good but can be bad



Etiology (cause of) of cellular injury

Ischemia and hypoxic injury


*All living cells must receive oxygen to produce ATP and survive


*hypoxia-lack of O2 in TISSUE (Ischemia)


*Hyypoxemia- lack of O2 in BLOOD


Nutritional


*alcoholism, low iron


Infectious and immunologic


*bacteria/viruses


Chemical


*toxins or free radicals


Physical and mechanical


*extreme temps or radiation

The suffix 'emia':

Blood

Cellular Aging: Free radical theory

Result of accumulated metabolic cell damage over time which leads to cell death

Cellular Aging: Somatic vs Brain death

Somatic death: entire organism death


*Absence of respiration or heart beat


Brain death: absence of brain stem reflexes


*Unresponsive, flaccid, absence of swallowing, gagging, etc


*Technology can keep us alive


*Criteria varies w/ geographic area

Neoplasia

Abnormal "new growth"


*Tumor (mass)


*Benign


*Malignant (cancer)

Anaplasia

Lack of differentiated features in a cancer cell


*Tumor doesn't act like the organ that it is in

Metastasis

Movement of cancer cell to distant site. Always a sign of malignancy


TNM: Grading and staging


Tumor size


Lymph Node affected


Degree of Metastasis

Suffixes: "oma" vs "carcin"

Oma: benign-few exceptions:


*Lymphomas


*Heaptomas


*Melanomas


Carcin: cancerous-malignant

Cancer (CA)

*Second leading cause of all deaths in US


*Most cancer is preventable


*Genetic Mechanisms of Cancer (CA)


*Proto-oncogenes


*Mutant, overactive gene


*Tumor suppressor genes


*Normally inhibit cell proliferation

Cancer Screening Guidelines

Breast


*Women 20+ Self Breast Examination (SBE) education


*20-30 Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) @ least every 3 yrs


*40-50 Begin annual mammography


Colerectal


*Women & men 50+ Colonoscopy every ten years


*FOBT yearly


Prostate


*Men 50+ PSA and or DRE


Cervix


Women 21+ Pap test every 1-2 yrs


Cancer-related checkup


*Men and women 20+ yearly physical

Effects of Cancer (CA) on the body

Cachexia: weight loss and weakness


Bone marrow suppression:


*Leukopenia: decreased WBC


*Thrombocytopenia: decreased platelet count


*Anemia: decreased RBC


Opportunistic infections

Cancer Therapy

Surgery: remove lump


Radiation: isolate one area (if surgery doesn't get it all, radiation will)


Chemotherapy: cytotoxic to ALL cell (good and bad). Affects cells that rapidly divide: (bone marrow, intestinal epithela, hair follicles)


Stem cell transplantation


Immunotherapy

7 Early signs of Cancer (CA) for Adults

CAUTION:


Change in bowel or bladder habits


A sore that does not heal


Unusual bleeding or discharge


Thickening or a lump in the breasts, testicles, or elsewhere


Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing


Obvious change in the size, color, shape, or thickness of a wart, mole or mouth sore


Nagging cough or hoarseness

8 Cancer (CA) warning signs in Children

Continued, unexplained weight loss


Headaches w/ vomiting in the morning


Increased swelling or persistent pain in bones or joints


Development of whitish appearance in pupil of the eye


Recurrent fevers not caused by infections


Excessive bleeding or bruising


Noticeable paleness or prolonged tiredness