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15 Cards in this Set

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what is the common name for the family Ancylostomatoidea?
hookworms
what is unique about the family Ancylostomatoidea?
dorsally flexed anterior
where are Anycylostoma caninum?
large intestine of dog
where are Anycylostoma tubaeformae?
large intestine of cat
where are Anycylostoma braziliense?
dogs and cats
where are Anycylostoma duodenale?
humans
what is the morphology of Ancylostoma species?
adults 10-16mm, grey-red, dorsally bent buccal cavity, 3 teeth on each side, eggs with 8-cell morula
what is the lifecycle of Ancylostoma species?
female worms in small intestine > mate and makes eggs > eggs in feces > develop to L3 in environment (5-7d) > ingestion of skin penetration of infective L3 (interdigital spaces) or ingestion of paratenic host. L3 has 2 options (1) normal: L3 > L4 in heart/lung > cough up and swallow, develop into adult in small intestine (acute) (2) arrested L3: months/yrs in tissue before reactivating to resume normal development (stress, etc) (chronic). also transmammary (peracute disease)
what is the pathogenesis of Ancylostoma species?
due to blood-feeding adult worms taking bloody bites of mucosa (lose nutrients and O2). Acute anemia in nursing puppies (L3 acquired in milk while nursing). Adults more resistant due to (1) immunity (2) natural defense (3) compensate for blood loss (4) premunition
what are the clinical signs of Ancylostoma species?
warm/moist conditions; newborns/immunocompromised; anemia, edema, emaciation, bloody diarrhea, tarry stool; peracute disease (no eggs in feces) in newborns 1-2wks old
how prevalent is Ancylostoma infestation in the SE USA?
20-40% in shelter dogs
what is the normal prepatent period of Ancylostoma species?
15-18d
what is the arrested prepatent period of Ancylostoma species?
years
how do we treat Ancylostoma species?
treat anemia with anthelmentic; iron/transfusion; repeat weekly for reactivation of arrested larvae. Treat puppies at 2-3 weeks (for hookworms and ascarids) and q2w until 2 mo old, when put on heartworm prevention program. All anthelmentics will kill ADULT hookworms but isn't effective on larvae in tissues. sodium borate/bleash kills larvae; remove feces; give fenbendazole to pregant females starting d40 of gestation, continueing 2w post-whelping or single dose of doramectin in periparturient period.
how are Ancylostoma species zoonotic?
cutaneous larval migrans resulting in itchy dermal lesion by skin penetrating larvae (free-living L3); eosinophilic gastroenteritis is rare, penetrate skin, migrate to intestine, mature to adulthood (not patent), 1-2 worms cause painful problems