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190 Cards in this Set

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What are the two infectious stages of nematodes?

egg & larvea
Hookworms are infectious in what stage? give two examples of hookworms...
ancylostoa duodenale
Necator americanus (only one in the americas)
Nector americanus goes by what path to the GI
Can penetrate the skin (usually feet),
Go into circulation,
to the heart,
then the lungs,
coughed up and swallowed,
enter GI tract
Necator americanus produce what symptoms?
lesion where entered
coughing in lungs
abd pain
diarhhea,,possible blood
Most significant ENEMIA!
hypochromic microscidic enemia (Fe+ difficiency, not as red, very small RBC)
What do Necator americanus feed on?
Diagnosis of Hookworms is based upon what?
Low light microscopic examination of capsule of egg
Strongyloides stercoralis infect by what path?
can penetrate skin,
enter circulation,
goes through heart to lungs,
coughed up and ingested
What is the diagnostic stage for strongyloides?
only worm who's diagnostic stage that is larval
Where are the adult strongyloides found, and what are their sex?
penetrate the mucousa, and only the females are parasitic,,,develope parthagenetically(w/o fertilization)
What makes strogyloides unique?
Favorable environmental factors enable both male and females to live in environment w/o parasitic phase
Where do strongyloides develope?
Can develope in either the bronchi or the duodenum,,,mainly in small intestine
What are the symptoms of Strongyloides?
douodenal pain
malabsorbtion of fats
How are they ID?
larvea in fecal material, however, only 25% detectable
Use the duodenal string test (weighted capsule with string)
Trichinella spiralis comes from what food source?
uncooked pork
Trichinella spiralis live where in the body?
only in striated muscle, develope in other areas, but can only survive in striated muscles
Trichinella spiralis is noted to be a disease of?
Carnivores,,, can be in rats, bear, pigs, dogs basically any mammal
How long does it take for Trichinella to mature in the mucosa?
48 hrs,,, female gives birth to larvea,,NO EGGS
What are the symptoms of trichinella?
most syptoms are irratation caused by migration of larvea, adults are lost or killed, larvea form a cyst
Cardinal features up to 70% eosinophilia, periorbital infalmation, constant fever for weeks..... basic features: hermorages under finger nails and muscle weakness. After infection, cysted formed will calcify after death of larvea (upto 30yrs)
Anisakiasis's main source of infection are what vector?
Marine fish, mainly sushi
Anisakiasis can be killed by what methods in food?
Deep freeze and fully cooking
What symptoms occur with anisakiasis?
NV, and abd cramping, infection will be deleted within a few days,,,,diagnosed by H&P
What nematodes infect humans in the egg stage?
3. Ascariasis
all have to be ingested
What nematodes infect humans in the larval stage?
1. Ancylostomeasis (hatched on ground)
2. Strongyloidiasis (on food)
3. Trichinosis(food)
4. Anisakiasis (food)
What is the most common helmeth infection in US?
Pin worms, Enterobius vermicularis
Eggs have to be ingested, live in large intestine, small worms, usally in cecum.
Lay eggs on the peritoneum, by migration through anus. Within a few hours, egg has developed into viable larva.
Enterobius vermicularis present with what signs
1. itching peritoneum
2. diarhhea
3. can attribute to appendicidase
4. abd pain
5. can cause ovarian or vaginal cyst in young female
When should you look for Enterobius vermicularis?
early in the morning, before bath
Trichuris trichiura
1.Mostly found in SE states must mature in humid tempurate climate.
2.eggs in small intestine
3.Larva are in cecum
4. Head is at the thin hair-like end
5. Occur only in humans through food or water contamination
6. Several months to mature and migrate to colon.
7. Head like portion thread its thin head through the mucosa, and anchor and feed
8. can live for years
What are the clinical features for Trichuris trichiura?
1. abd pain
2. mild anemia
3. eosinphilic count raised
4. inflamation of colon
5. bloody diarhhea
6. extreme cases, rectal prolapse.
7. cause of appendicitis
What diagnostic features allows for id of Trichuris tirichiura?
in egg stage, the possess "end plugs"
Ascaris lumbricoides
1. about 1/4 of the people in the world infected
2. small intestine infection, then to pulmonary
3. 8-18 inches long
4. Contaminated food or water ingestion
5. larva go through mucosa to the blood stream, to the liver, then to the heart, then to the pulmonary tract, coughed up and reingested, then mature in small intestine.
6. live six months to a year
7. must develope in the environment
8. up to 200k eggs per day
What symptoms do ascaris lubricoides cause?
larva stage
1. pneumonia
2. hemoptosis (coughing up blood)
3. pulmonary cysts
4. eosinophilia
5. bronchitis
intestinal phase
1. intestinal obstruction, due to over crowding
2. abd. pain
3. cramping
4. can infect into gallbladder and appendix
Identification of ascaris lubricoides is done by?
Stool samples, with bile stain,,,, these are resistant to 2% formalyne,,,50% solutions of common acids
Visceral Larva migrans are caused by what worms?
caused by dog & cat ascarids and hookworms
What do visceral larva migrans cause?
Mainly in children 4 and under. In the wrong host, usually get to the liver and stop. Other possible symptoms are chronic lung infection, bad if gets into eye. Several weeks until they die. High eosinophilia.
What is the major sign for cutaneous larvea migrans?
Worm tracks in skin, superficial skin lesions
Fileriasis (wuchereria bancrofti ex.) causes what disease symptoms?
Lymphnode inflamation
Milky urine (lymph in urine)
possible elephantiasis only in small percentage of pts, ususally unilateral
Fileriasis is caused by what vector?
Larvea are transmitted by mosquitos. Larvea mature in lymphatic vessels.
The female fileriasis microfalarie are?
The embryonic form of the worm, after release from adult will not develope into mature worms. The microfalarie go into the circulation system. Feed at night and are in the peripherial circulation at night.
How do you diagnose fileriasis?
Blood film from the night
Onchocerca volvulus causes what symptoms?
Called the blinding worm!
Large fibrous capsule, in subcutaneous capsule
skin looses elastisity, hangs off body
How do you diagnose onchocerca?
skin scraping, simply look for them
The infection of Onchocerca is transmitted by what vector?
Black flies (semnulian damnosum),larvea in fast moving water
larvea mature in skin, years
microfalarie move through skin, do not get into circulation!
What is the vector for Loa Loa?
Deer flies are the vector(in AFRICA)
Loa Loa causes what symptoms?
They call it an eye worm bc it moves about 1/2" per minute, sometimes move across eye just under conjuctiva.
Cause eosinophilia
Calabar swellings (fugative swellings)
allergic reactions
Loa Loa can be diagnosed by?
1.by the fugative swellings
2.microfalarial present in blood film
Dracunculus mdinensis has what for a vector?
A copepod(water fleas) in drinking water in Africa, India, and Pakastan
How do you diagnos dracunculus?
visual able to see it
Dracunculus causes what symptoms?
Long worms (female)that come out through the skin when comes in contact with water. Twisted on a stick for removale
Fasciolopsis buski is infectious in what stage?
Infection results after ingestion of larvea that encyst them selves in water plants.
Fasciolopsis buski attach were in the body?
use their suckers to attach to the instinal tract. A infection can mimic dueadenal ulcer and inhibit fat absorbtion. Can cause abd. cramps, bleeding, and diarehhea.
How do you diagnose fasciolopsis buski?
The diagnostic egg stage found in stool. Very large egg with a polar lid.
Fasciola hepatica causes what disease and how does it get there?
This is the sheep liver fluke, sheep feces contaimate water plants. People then eat the water plants, larvea penetrate instinal mucosa, penetrate the liver, then move to the bile ducts. Damage occurs by hyperplasa of bile duct epitheluim, and liver fibrosis.
How do you diagnose fasciola hepatica?
mainly in sheep herding areas
Clonorchis sinensis comes from what host?
Caused by eating raw freshwater fish, larvea migrate to common bile duct and travel up to liver and gallbladder.
What symptoms does clonorchis sinensis cause?
liver schlerosis, hepatomegly, jaundice, carcinoma of biliary tree!
How is clonorchis sinensis diagnosed?
eggs are diagnostic stage in stool sample....even though they are a liver worm, they empty their eggs into bile duct.
What is the intermediate host for clonorchis sinensis?
some snail, then to a fresh water fish (cyprinoid)
What type of cyst does chonorchis sinensis cause?
metacercaria cyst in fish muscle
Paragonimus westermani cause disease in what tissue?
It is a lung disease, by ingestion of crabs (food crabs).
*** can cause ectopic associated areas, CNS, epilepsi,brain abscesses possible, epithelium,
Paragonimus westermani has what as a secondary host?
Insufficiently cooked crabs and crawdads,,,,fresh water crabs
How do you diagnose paragonimus westermani?
encystic calcification on cxr, sputum or stool carries the eggs
How does paragonimus westermani get into lung?
Ingestion, penetrate intestinal wall, until they reach the diaphram, migrate to espophogial hiatis and go into the lungs.
What are the symptoms of paragonimus westermani?
hemoptomis (coughing up blood),calcifications on cxr
Cestode is what type of worms?
Tape worms...
Name the sections of the scolex in a cestod.
1. rostellar hooks
2. sucker
Name the section of the strobila in a cestod
1. imature proglottid
2. mature pro.
3. gravid pro.
What makes cestodes unique concerning the food absorbtion?
Hymenolepis nana has what as a natural animal host? what intermediate host does it have?
The dwarf tapeworm is naturally in mice, and has no intermediate host. It is a direct contaminate of feces in food (human to human)
What is the diagnostic factor for detection of hymenolepis nana?
embryonated eggs in stool
What symptoms does hymenolepis nana cause?
1. main symptom is anorexia
2. enteritis
3. diarrhea
4. abd. pain
Give a basic discription of the physical charactoristics of hymenolepis nana.
1. 4 suckers
2. 20-30 hooks
3. approx. 200 segments
4. segments are broader than long.
Give the steps of infection, post ingesting the hymenoplis nana.
1. Its liberated embryo pentrates villus
2. Becomes imbedded and cysticercoid in 4 days
3. Cysticercoid re-enters lumen and attaches to mucosa
4. Adult within 10-12 days.
Hymenolepis diminuta has what as a natural animal host? what intermediate host does it have?
the intermediate host of the rat tape worm is a flea. Accidental ingestion of flea by humans causes infection. Normal host is rat or other rodents.
Give the steps of developement for hymenolepis diminuta.
1. ovum spread through feces,
2.flea ingestes ,
3.embryo hatched in gut
4. pentrates intestinal wall of flea
5. develops int cysticercoid in flea body cavity.
6. accidental ingestion of flea by human
7. cysticercoid liberated and attaches to mucosa of human gut
8. developes into adult
Give a brief physical discription of hymenolpis diminuta.
has no hooks
4 suckers
800-1000 segments
segment is broader than long
How do you identify hymenolepis diminuta?
same as hymenolepis nana, eggs in stool.
What symptoms are associated with an infection with hymenolepis diminuta?
1. anorexia
2. abd. pain
3. enteritis
4. diarrhea
Dibothriocephalus latus has what as a host and what as a intermediate host?
1. 1st intermediate host is a procercoid in cyclops
2. 2nd intermediate host is a plerocercoid in a fish
3. Man eats raw fish, plerocercoid liberated in intestine
4. scolex envaginates and attaches to mucosa
5. matures in 3 weeks
Describe the physical features of Dibothriocephalus latus?
1.It has 2 suctorial grooves(bothria) and
2.can be 3 to 10 meters in length.
3.approx. 3000 segments
4.broader than long segments
Dibotriocephalus latus is mainly associated with what human food source?
Dibothriocephalus latus causes what main symptom?
Vit. B12 deficient Anemia

most are asymptomatic
Taenia saginata is a associated with what main human food source?
Taenia saginata has what as an intermediate host and what as the main host?
Cattle as intermediate, humans as main.
Taenia saginata has what steps in its lifecycle?
1. Cow ingests motile segments and eggs are released.
2. man eats cow that has encysted larvea
3. larva's scolex attaches to jejunum of man, 8-10 weeks until mature
Give some overall physical features of Taenia saginata.
1.Its scolex has 4 suckers, no hooks
2.it can be 5-10 meters long
3.with 1000-2000 segments
4.segments are longer than wide
5. proglottid segements have 15-30 paired branches
Name the stages of life for Dibothriocephalus (diphyllobothrium)-
1. egg
2. coracidium
3. procercoid
4. plerocercoid
5. adult
Name the stages of life for hymenolepis?
1. egg
2. oncosphere
3. cysticercoid
4. adult
Name the stages of life for taenia-
1. egg
2. oncosphere
3. cysticercus
4. adult
Name the stages of life for Echinococcus-
1. egg
2. oncosphere
3. hydatid
4. adult
Taenia solium is associated with what animal food source that is the intermediate host?
Taenia solium has what additional occasional intermediate host?
Human cysticercosis can develope in the muscles and brain
Give a breif physical discription of teania solium-
1. its scolex has 4 suckers, and 2 rows of hooks (25-30)
2. can get to be 3 meters long
3. 800-1000 segements
4. segements are longer than wide
5. proglottid segements have 7-12 paired branches
How do you detect teania soluim?
embryonatd eggs or proglottids in stool
Echinococcus granulosus is associated with what intermediate host?
Sheep are the intermediate host, while canine are the intended host. People are from accidental infections.
Explain the lifecyle of Echinococcus granulosus-
1. sheep eat contaminated plant
2. forms cyst in sheep
3. canine eat sheep
4. people are infected by ingestion of ovum
What issues does echinococcus cause in humans?
1. after ingestion, pentrate gut
2. blood stream carries them to various places
3. turn into cysts in that area
4. can infect lungs, liver, gut, bone and even the brain
How can you detect echinococcus in humans?
xray, ultrasound, CT, aspiration of "hydatid sand"
What are some symptoms associated with Cysticercosis?
Infection from Teaniea Solium where the cyst can spread and cause jacksonian seizures, occular disturbances, and hydrocephelus
Give the basic lifecycle for schistosoma mansoni.
It has a snail that has been infected by human waste, the organism then turns to a free swimming form to penetrate the skin of a human. Goes through the skin into the blood to the liver, then the intestines.
What are some of the symptoms of schistosoma mansoni?
1. ASSociated with BLADDER CANCER
2. hematuria
3. hepatosplenomegaly
4. portal fibrosis and hypertension
What diagnostic finding could lead you to think of an infection with schistosoma mansoni?
Non perculated embryoned eggs in stool
What are the lumen-dwelling protazoa?
1. amegae
2. Ciliate
3. Falgellates
4. Sporozoa
What are the blood and tissue protozoa?
1. flagellates
2. sporozoa
Where do protozoa multiply?
In the host, unlike the helmiths (helmiths can be reingested after release by single parent)
Entamoeba histolytica infect what part of the body?
Large intestine
An infection by Entamoeba histolytica is called what?
Chronic 85-95%
Acute less than 10% amebic dysentary
Extraintestinal-abscesses in tissues throughout the body
Entamoeba histolytica has what two stages associated with it?
1. Cyst stage is always the infective stage( humans are the only host)
2. amebic stage- will die in environment
What is the most common site of extraintestinal cyst formation with entamoeba histolytica?
The liver!

can infect lungs and brain also,,,but rare
Symptoms of ameobic dysentary-
W1.atery bloody stools daily
2.abd. pain
3.Tenesmous- painful straining for bowl movement without BM
What are the identifying charactoristics of types of ameoba?
The nucleus is the key
trichrome stain and also presence of cyst.
Ameobic extraintestinal symptoms would be?
-pain over liver
-does not have to have intestinal symptoms
Naegleria fowleri invades what part of the body?
The ameba invades the nasal mucosa, cribaform plate and then into the brain. You can ingest as much water as you want, with no effect.
Naegleria fowleri is actually what?
It is a free living ameba, it can live in water outside the body, can live on bacteria
What stages of life does naegleria fowleri have?
1. Ameba
2. Falgellate- only temperary, but does not stay like this (why?)
3. cyst- in harsh conditions
Naegleria fowleri likes what type of water?
Very hot, can multiply and survive upto 113 degrees F, 45 degrees C
Naegleria fowleri follow what path into the brain?
They follow the nerve fibers from the nasal mucosa into the nerves of the cribaform plate, then into the frontal lobe
What symptoms comes on with the naegleria fowleri?
1.sever headaches
3.loss of taste and smell
5.nausa vomiting
This happens within 1 week-
Can isolate the organism from CNS.
How would you diagnos naegleria fowleri?
CNS fluid with blood stain...
Acanthameoba and balamuthia mandrillaris cause what type of disease?
Granulomatous amebic encephalitis. This is a chronic CNS infection,, mostly in immune compromised.
How does acanthameoba and balamuthia differ from Naegleria fowleri?
Both acanthameoba and balamuthia cause a localized lesion of the brain.
Acanthamoeba keratitis causes what symptoms?
Huge amounts of pain, in comparison to the amount of inflamation present.
What worms have a snail as an intermediate host?
1. Fasciolopsis buski
2. Fasciola hepatica
3. Clonorchis sinensis
4. paragonimus westermani
5. Schistosoma mansoni
Which worms are associated with sheep?
1. Fasciola hepatica (sheep liver fluke)
2. Echinococcus granulosus
Which worms are associated with fish ingestion?
1. Anisakiasis
2. Clonorchis sinensis
3. Dibothriocephalus latus(fish tape worm)
Which worms are associated with pigs?
1. Trichinella spiralis
2. Taenia solium (pork TW)
Which worms are associated with rats?
1. hemenolepis diminuta (rat TW)
2. Trichinella spiralis
Which worms are associated with arthropods? insects and crustceans...
1.Wuchereria bancrofti (elephantitis)
2. Onchocerca volvus (blinding worm)
3. Loa Loa (worm in eye)
4. Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea worm) drink n bad water,,cyclopod
5. Hymenolepis diminuta (ingestion of infected flea)
6. Dibothriocephalus latus (fish tape worm, cylopod intermediate)
7. Paragonimus westermani (lung fluke) crawdads and crabs
Which worms have a free swimming phase of life?
1. Fasciolopsis buski
2. Fasciola hepatica
3. Clonorichis sinensis
4. Schistosoma mansoni
5. Dracunculus medinensis (in the worm stage, released by stimiulation to water)
What worms enter through the skin without a vector/intermediates help?
1.Ancylostoma duodenale (hookworms)
2. Strongyloides stercoralis
3. Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke)
Which worms travel through or cause disease in the lungs?
1. Ancylostoma duodenale (hookworms)- pneumonitis and pass through
2. Ascaris lubricoides- pass through
3. Strongyloides stercoralis- larvea can mature here
4. Echinococcus granulosus- becomes cyst visible on xray
5. Paragonimus westermani-(lung fluke)fibrous capsule in lung
Which worms are associated with the liver?
1. Fasciola hepatica-(sheep liver fluke)
2. Shictosoma mansoni-goes through liver
3. Toxcara canis (dog ascaris- visceral larva migrans)
4.Echincoccus granulosus- encyst in liver
5.Clonorchis sinenesis- bile duct
Which worms are associated with water plants?
1. Fasciolopsis buski
2. Fascila hepatica
What is coccidia?
Sporozoan parasites of the intestinal tracts,,,intracellular,, sexual and asexual repro.
Cryptosporidiosis live where in the body?
In the epithelia cells of the gut, spores(infective stage) are hidden in the brush border of the SI
Cryptosporidiosis parvum will infect what? what is the infected vector?
Any mammal, comes from contaminated (feces) water. Are resistant to Cl- and spores will go through sand filter. Immune compromised at risk.
Cryptosporidiosis causes what type of symptoms? how is it diagnost?
Severe diarrhea, malagia, weight loss.
Spores in feces or string test
Cryptosporidiosis has what as a reproductive cycle?
Two asexual bianary fission, with then one gamet production. This set number of reproduction causes it to be self limiting.
Balantidium Coli is special because of what?
Only cilliated protozoan infection, it also infects the large bowl.
Balantidium Coli has what as a infective stage?
The cyst is the infection agent (contaminated food & water).
Ciliate will die in environment
What does Balantidium Coli infection cause?
balantidium coli is non-extra intestinal, causes severe diarrhea, abd pain, bloody stool(from ulceration) ect...

very common in hogs, kind of rare in humans..
Balantidium Coli can be identified by ?
trophozoite or cysts in the stool, cilia
What are the lumen dwelling flagellates we are concerned with?
Giardia lamblia (small intestine)
Trichomonas vaginalis (UTI)
Giardia lamblia causes what symptoms?
inflamation, chronic diarrhea, malabsorbtion of fats, more sever in children
IgA is fairly protective, and mothers milk has an antiflagellate and antiamebic
Giardia lamblia is diagnosed by ?
Bilateral symetry, with a sucker, 4 flagella, finding cyst stage or trophozoite stages in stool.
Giardia lamblia is contaminated by what large rodent?
Beavers, cyst survives Cl-

Iodine will kill cysts...
Trichomonas vaginalis causes what?
vagilitis, prostotitis and urethritis in both male and female
How is trichomonas vaginalis contracted?
Sexual intercourse
How do you diagnose trichomonas vaginalis is diagnosed by what?
The trophozoites in urethral and vaginal discharge,, wet mount specimen
What stages of life does trichomonas vaginalis have?
only the trophozoite,
What symptoms does trichomonas vaginalis have?
vaginal discharge, pain upon urination,, can be asymptomatic in males
Why can a pregnant women not use metronidazole for a Trichomonas vaginalis infection?
metronidazole can be carcinoginic to fetus.
hemoflagellates are found where?
blood and tissues of the body
Hemoflagellates are transmitted by ?
blood sucking insects
What diseases are in the group hemoflagellates?
Trypanosoma and LLeishmania
What are the hemoflagellate intermediates?
1. Amastogote for- no flagella. Intracellular
2. Trypomastigote- flagella in front. Extracellular
Trypansomiasis (african) goes by what path?
Blood to- winterbottom's sign
Lymph to-
CNS- sleeping sickness
Typanosomaisis has what three major diseases?
T. Cruzi, T. Brucei gambiense and T. Brucei rhodesiense
Typanosomaisis B. Rhodesiense is east or west? more server or less? time frame?
2. More
3. Months till death
Typanosomaisis B. causes what symptoms?
1. swollen lymphs
2. swollen necks(winterbottom's sign)
3. fever
4. meningoencephelitis
5. lethargy/sleepiness
6. paravascular inflamation in brain causes anoxia in brain (sleepiness), organisms also excrete chemicals that cause sleepiness
How do the Typanosomes survive in blood?
IgM elevates to antigen presented host, then parasites change glycoprotein surface antigens. " Antigenic Variation"
Diagnosis is made by what to ID typanosomes?
Recovery of typanisomes in body fluid in blood (early), CSF(blood)
Trypanosoma cruzi, american trypanosoma...affects what country the most?
Brazil, associated with poverty.
Reduviid bug is special because?
It is the only true bug that causes infection,,,not by injection, bc of defecation on skin near site of bite. When rubbing bite, bug is infective.
What are the syptoms of trypanosome cruzi?
1. Heart involvment
2. hepatospenomegaly
3. CNS ecephelomeningitis
4. Romonia sign, swelling around eye upper and lower eyelid
5. lesion where bug bites,, hard
6. mega colon, caused by nerve degeneration of enteric nerves by T. cruzi waste product
Where are the dividing stages of T. Cruzi at in human host?
in the tissue involved,
How do you diagnose T. Cruzi?
diagnosis is from tissue!!biopsy or sometimes in blood
xeno diagnosis- non-infected bug is allowed to bite suspected individual, with in 8 days, T. Cruzi will be in the bugs guts.
Leishmaniasis donovani causes what disease?
How do you diagnose leishamniasis donovani?
1. Fever (twice daily)
2. Anemia from bleeding
3. Two year cycle, fatal if not treated
4. Found in Kupfer cells of liver
5. Usually take bone biopsy of sternum
Leishmaniasis is transmitted by what vector?
Sanflys inject the flagellet form, which then infect the phagocytic cells, and endothelial cells and become the non-flagellated form.
Leishmaniasis infect what tissues?
donivani- visceral form hepatosplenomegally
Tropica- cutaneous lesions
Braziliensis-Mucocutaneous (nose and mouth)
How does the leismaniasis survive in the macrophages?
by keeping the lysozyme from binding to the phagosome
Toxoplasma gondii has what as a natural host?
In all red meat---asexual repro occurs

In cats--- sexual reproduction occurs

FLIES and cockroaches can also pic up oocytes and be able to spread them to foods
What is the most serious response to a disease?
Pregnant females, in first trimester, most abort.
2nd or 3rd trimester, CNS, eye envolment are usual deficient (THIS GOES TRANS PLACENTAL ALSO#3, nisseria, syphillus)

Serious disease in immune suppress,,,,leads to death....
Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is done how?
Serologic tests- Indirect flourecence antibody test

Antibody titiers, High IgM in pregnant females means fetus is pregnant
Babesiosis causes what diseases and symptoms?
disease of rbc, from tick transmitted infection, causing anemia
What is the original and natural final host for babesiosis?
Mice are the original, and large grazers(cows, deer) for final...humans, not a normal host
How do you diagnose babesiosis?
Blood film, multiply in RBC,,,, usually self limiting
Microsporidiosis causes what?
Only in Immune suppress,,AIDS,,
Usually in lower invertabrates...
Microsporidiosis is diagnosed by?
Find spores in feces
or by biopsy of involved tissue
Also flouresent antibody stained.
Microsporidiosis are found where?
Intracellular, injection of spore through tubule
Microsporidiosis causes what?
Mostly intestinal infections, but can be in eye, nose, mouth
What is the most lethal form of Plasmodium?
P. falciparum
What is the most common form of Plasmodium?
P. vivax 55%
What are the four types of Plasmodium that will infect humans?
P. vivax 55% 48hrs
P. falcuparum 40% consistant fever, causes the lethality
P. malariae 72hrs
P. ovale-48 hrs
What type of mosquito transmits malaria?
Anopholies female mosquitos
Where do the sporozites of malaria go?
they are injected, go to the liver, then enter RBC, then produce gamets that will not develope any further(infectious to mosquitos)
What causes the relapse of malaria?
The cycling of the synchronis developement of the merozoites in the RBCs, and synchronized rupture of theses RBCs
What are the major symptoms of malaria?
sometime hepatomegaly
With p. falciparum causes capillary occlusions, from host agglutination of infected and non-infected rbcs
How do we diagnos malaria?
main is the Blood film

DNA probes
What makes P. falciparum different than the other three?
1. more lethal
2. constant fever
3. causes capillary occlusions
4. Several infections within one RBC