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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Nervous System

Consists of neurons and neuroglia; has two main parts, the CNS and the PNS

Central Nervous System

Consists of neurons and neuroglia; has two main parts, the CNS and the PNS

Peripheral Nervous System

Consists of nerves and ganglia; lies outside of CNS


A bundle of axons and/or dendrites that lies outside of the brain and spinal cord


Consists of a cell body, dendrites and an axon

Convert stimuli into a nerve impulse


Perform various supporting functions

Mechanical Signals

Touch, temperature, etc.

Action Potential

Electrical signal that travels along the surface of a neuron's plasma membrane

Beings and propagates through the movement of ions across the plasma membrane


any neuronal process - axon or dendrite

Cell Body


Contains nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm


The cytoplasm surrounding a nucleus

Nissl bodies

Prominent clusters of rough ER


Bundles of intermediate filaments that give the cell shape and support


Move substances between the cell body and the axon (transports)


Short branching processes that receive signals from other neurons


Long, thin processes (extensions) of neurons. Typically conduct impulses away from the cell body


The cytoplasm of an axon


The plasma membrane of an axon

Axon Hillock

Where axon attaches to the cell body

Initial Segment

Distal to the axon hillock

Trigger Zone

Lies in the junction between the axon hillock and initial segment

Axon Terminals

End of an axon and any axon collaterals that divide into fine processes

Multipolar Neurons

Several dendrites and on axon

Bipolar Neurons

One main dendrite and one axon

Unipolar Neurons

Have dendrites and one axon that are fused together during development

Afferent Neurons

Sensory Neurons

Carry information to the direction impulses are conducted relative to the CNS

Efferent Neurons

Motor Neurons

Carry information from the CNS to the effectors


Carry information within the CNS


Star-shaped, have many processes

Provide structure for blood-brain barrier

Protoplasmic Astrocytes

Found in gray matter

Fibrous Astrocytes

Found in white matter


Resemble astrocytes, but are smaller

Responsible for forming the myeline sheath of CNS neurons

One myelinates several neurons

Microglial Cells

Small cells with slender processes

Removes debris

Function as phagocytes

Ependymal Cells

Cuboidal to columnar-shaped cells arranged in a single layer

Produce cerebrospinal fluid

Form the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier

Line ventricles of brain and central canal of spinal cord

Glial Cells


Completely surround axons and cell bodies. Two types.

Schwann Cells

Form myelin sheath around axons

Myelinates only one neurons

Envelope twenty or more unmyelinated axons

Participate in axon regeneration

Satellite Cells

Flat cells that surround cell bodies

Provide structural support of cell bodies

Regulate exchange of substances between neurons and extracellular fluid


Many layers of plasma membrane wrapped around an axon

Node of Ranvier

The gap between each myelinating Schwann cell


Provides a sheath or tube that aids in axonal regeneration after injury

Rostral-caudal Axis

Beak and Tail

Dorsal-ventral Axis

Back and Belly

Spinal Cord

Mass of nerve tissue located in the vertebral canal, which 31 pairs of spinal nerves origninate

Ascending Pathways

Relay sensory information from the PNS to the brainstem and brain

Descending Pathways

Carry commands from the brain to motor neurons located in the spinal cord

Somatic Efferents

Within PNS, carry motor neuron commands to skeletal muscle

Visceral Efferents

Within PNS, carry motor neuron commands to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands


Most caudal part of the brainstem and is continuous with the spinal cord


Lies rostral to the medulla


Lies rostral to the pons


Lies rostral to the midbrain


Processes most sensory input to the brain from the spinal cord and brainstem (except sense of smell)


Integrates information within the autonomic nervous system

Regulates hormone secretion by the pituitary glad


Attached to the pons

Important for coordination of muscle movement and learning

Cerebral Hemispheres

Comprised of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia


Sensory receptors located in superficial structures like skin


Sensory receptors located in muscles, tendons and joints


Sensory receptors located in visceral organs

Somatic Afferents

Afferent neurons that relay sensory input from body structures

Visceral Afferents

Afferent neurons that relay sensory input from viscera

Spinal Nerves

Carry afferent input and efferent output to and from spinal cord

Craininal Nerves

Carry afferent input and efferent output to and from the brainstem, thalamus and brain


Covers each individual nerve fiber (axon)


Encloses each of the bundles (fascicles)


Surrounds entire nerve


Swellings on a nerve that contain sensory cell bodies


Somatic Nervous System

Somatic afferent neurons

Somatic efferent neurons

Autonomic Nervous System

Visceral afferent neurons

Visceral efferent neurons

Sympathetic Division

Fight or flight division

Parasympathetic Division

Rest-and-digest division

Enteric Nervous System

Digestive system