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102 Cards in this Set

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What is the first line of defense?
It is a nonspecific defense (barrier that stops pathogens from entering the body).
-skin
-mucous
-cilia
-stomach acid
What is the second line of defense?
It is meant to limit the spread of invaders that got into the body
-Inflammatory response
-Phagocytes
-Interferons
What is the inflammatory response?
-type of 2nd line of denfense
-swelling, redness, soreness, & increased temperature in area
-Increased blood supply to the area --> which increases nutrients, oxygen, and white blood cells to fight disease
What does Histamine do?
It triggers vasodilation (enlargement of blood vessels) which increase blood supply to the area
What are phagocytes?
-type of 2nd line of defense
-Marcrophages extend pseudopods and engulf a lot of microbes
What are interferons?
-Chemicals released by the immune system to block against viral infections
What is an antigen?
Anything that triggers an immune response
What is the third line of defense for the human immune system?
-It is specific
-Consists of B lymphocytes & T lymphocytes
-Both recognize different specific antigens (germs)
How are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes similar?
-They originate in the bone marrow.
-Once mature, they circulate in the blood, lymph, and lymphatic tissue(spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, and adenoids)
How are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes different?
-B lymphocytes produce antibodies against a specific antigen in what is called a humoral response
-T lymphocytes fight pathogens by hand-to-hand combat in what is called a cell-mediated response
What types of antigens are present in different blood types
A - Antigen A
B - Antigen B
O - None
AB - A and B
What types of antibodies are present circulating in the plasma for diferent blood types
A - antibodies against B
B - antibodies against A
O - antibodies against A & B
AB - no antibodies against A or B
Where are antigens present?
On the surface of the RBCs
Where are antibodies present?
Circulating in the plasma
What is passive immunity?
-Temporary
-Borrowed and do not survive long
-(Ex. maternal antibodies)
What is active immunity?
-Permenant
-Makes his/her own antibodies after being ill or given immunization or vaccine
What is an auto - immune disease?
It's the teriible mistake of immune system which produces antibodies which attacks and kills body cells of its own.
Ex: Multiple sclerosis, lupus, arthritis, and juvenile diabetes
What is AIDS Virus and how does it affect the body?
-Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
-Susceptible to oppurtunistic diseases, infections, and cancers
- the HIV virus attacks helper T- cells
- Uses opposite of typical DNA and the host cell integrates this into own genome
What is a retro virus?
Once inside a cell, it trasncribes itself in reverse
What are plasma cells?
Thse fight antigens immediately in what is called the primary immune response
What are memory cells?
Fight antigens but remain circulating in the blood in small numbers for a lifetime
Immunological memory
The capacity of the immune system to generate a seconary immune response. It prevents you from getting any specific viral infection, such as chicken pox, more than once
What is parthenogenesis?
The development of an embryo without fertilization
What is parthenogenesis?
A process in which the egg develops without being fertilized and the adults that result are monoploid
(honeybees --> male are monoploid while female are diploid)
What are the three stages of embryonic development?
-Cleavage
-Gastrulation
-Organogenesis
What is cleavage?
-Rapid mitotic cell division of the zygote that begins right after fertilization
-The cells are dividing so quickly that they have no time to develop in size
-By the end, a fluid - filled ball of cells called a blastula is formed
Describe the structure of a blastula
-A group of cells
-Individual cells are called blastomeres
-The fluid - filled center is a blastocoel
What is gastrulation?
-Continuation of the process that began during cleavage
-Involves differentiation
-Rearrangement of the blastula to produce a 3 layered embryo called a gastrula
What are the embryonic germ layers of the gastrula?
-Ectoderm --> will become the nervous system
-Endoderm --> will form the viscera, (lungs, liver, & digestive organs)
-Mesoderm --> forms the muscle, blood, & bones
What is organogenesis?
A stage in the embryonic development in which cells continue to differentiate, producing organs from the 3 embryonic germ layers
-Once all the organ systems developed, the embryo increases in size and becomes a fetus
What is the cervix and endometrium?
Cervix - the mouth of the uterus
Endometrium - lining of the uterus
What are the four stages of the Female Menstrual Cycle?
-Follicular Phase
-Ovulation
-Luteal Phase
-Menstruation
What is the follicular phase?
Part of menstrual cycle when tiny cavities (follicles) in the ovaries grow and secrete increasing amounts of estrogens in response to follicle - stimulating hormone (FSH)
What is ovulation?
Part of the menstrual cycle when the oocyte ruptures out of the ovaries in response to a rapid increase in the luteinizing hormone (LH).
What is the luteal phase?
Part of the menstrual cycle when the corpus luteum (the cavity of the follicle left behind) forms and secretes estrogen and progesterone that thicken the endometrium (lining) of the uterus.
What is menstruation?
Part of the menstrual cycle when the lining of the uterus breaks down and is shed
What are the memebranes of a bird embryo?
-Chorion
-Yolk sac
-Amnion
-Allantois
What is a chorion?
Lies under the bird egg shell and allows for diffusion of respiratory gases between the outside environment and the inside of the shell
What is a yolk sac?
It enlcoses the yolk, the food for the growing embryo
What is an amnion?
In a bird embryo, it encloses the embryo in protective amniotic fluid
What is an allantois?
-Analogous to the plactenta n mammals
-channel for respiratory gases to pass
-where nitrogenous waste uric acid accumulates
Where in the human body does the absorbtion of nutrients occur?
After digestion is completed in the duodenum, the nutrients are small enough to be absorbed into the bloodstream through the villi and microvilli
What are the intestinal enzymes in the human body?
-Pancreatic amylases --> digestive starch
-Peptidases like trypsin and chymotrypsin --> break down proteins
-Nucleases --> hydrolyze nucleic acids into nucleotides
-Lipases --> break down fats
What is a lacteal?
Part of the villus which absorbs fatty acids and glycerol into the lymphatic system
What is the major cause of most ulcers?
The bacterium Heliobacter pylori is a major a cause of most ulcers, which is located in the pyloric sphincter at the top of the stomach
What is the large intestine?
-Also called colon
-No digestion occurs here
-3 major digestive functions: egestion, vitamin production, reabsorbtion of water
What is egestion?
Removal of undigested waste
Describe vitamin production in the large intestine
-Bacteria symbionts living in the colon produce the B vitamins, vitamin K, and folic acid
Describe the reabsorbtion of water in the large intestine?
1) Constipation- too much water is reabsorbed from the intestine into the bod
2)Diarrhea- an inadequate amount of water is absorbed back into body
How do the pHs of gastric and intestinal enzymes differ?
-Gastric enzymes --> pH of 3
-Intestinal enzymes --> pH of 8
What is an antibody?
-numerous Y -shaped protein molecules which are specialized
-act as primary defense and shut down antigens
What is the liver?
- Produces bile that breaks down fats.
-pH of 11 (neutralizes acidified food from entering the small intestine)
-Sends bile to gallbadder
What are the 5 functions of the liver?
1) Produces bile
2) Breaks down & recycles RBCs
3) Produces cholesterol necessary for structure of cell membranes
4) Produces nitrogenous waste urea from protein metabolism
5) Detoxifies blood - removes alcohol & drugs
Where does protein digestion begin and end?
-Begins in stomach with gastric juice
-Ends in the small intestine
What type of muscles do the digestive tract consist of?
It consists of smooth muscle and is under the control of the autonomic nervous system
What is the pathway of blood through the heart (in 14 steps)
1) Right atrium
2) Right atrioventricular or tricuspid valve
3) Right ventricle
4) Pulmonary semilunar valve
5) Pulmonary artery
6) Lungs
7) Pulmonary vein
8) Left atrium
9) Left atrioventricular valve or bicuspid valve
10) Left ventricle
11) Aortic semilunar valve
12) Aorta
13) To all the cells in the body
14) Returns to the heart through the vena cava
Which part of the heart pumps blood through the aorta and out to the entire body?
The left ventricle pumps blood through the aorta. It has the thickest wall of all the chambers and provides the greatest force
How is the breathing rhythm set in the body?
-The medulla in the brain sets the breathing rythm by monitoring CO2 levels in the blood and by sensing changes in the pH of the blood.
Why do we breath faster?
A blood pH lower than 7.4 triggers autonomic nerves from the medulla to increase the breathing rate to rid the body of more CO2
What is the purpose of the nose?
-To filter, warm, and moisten air
What happens when carbon dioxide builds up in the blood?
The pH lowers
What are red blood cells?
-Erthrocytes
-Formed in the bone marrow
When they reach maturity, the nucleus is removed so there is more room for hemoglobin to carry more oxygen
-They carry hemoglobin and oxygen but very little CO2.
What is the pacemaker of the heart?
The sinoatrial (SA) node. Thsi sets the timing of the contractions of the heart.
-It is influenced by the nervous ssystem, hormones like adrenaline, and the body temperature
What is a thrombus?
- A clot
-can cause serious damage in the absense of injury
What is serum?
-Plasma minus clotting factors
What is the pathway of normal clot formation?
Thromboplastin + Ca --> stimulates Prothrombin --> Thrombin --> Stimulates Fibrinogen --> Fibrin (Clot)
How is the largest amount of CO2 carried to the lungs?
-Carried by the plasma as the bicarbonate ion
-The ion works as a buffering system that maintains the pH of the blood at 7.4
What is the function of valves in veins?
They contain valves to help prevent the blood from flowing backward into the veins.
What is the saltatory conduction?
-"Jumping" type of conduction
-Impulses seem to jump down the axon from node to node increasing the rate at which in reachs the end of the axon
What is the threshold potential?
The potential at which the voltage - gated channels open
What is a synapse?
Neuron to neuron junction or neuron to organ junction
What is a neurotransmitter?
A special chemcial used to pass an impluse from one neuron to the next
(Ex. actylcholine)
What is inhibited?
Moving away from threshold
What is summation?
The neuron will take all the stimulatory input and all the inhibitory input and "add them up."
What are the sensory neurons?
These neurons are involved in sending information to the CNS from the sensory organs of the body
What are the motor neurons?
These neurons are involved in sending information from the CNS to the organs of the body
What are interneurons?
-Part of CNS
-Neurons that are completely within the brain and spinal cord.
-Often connect sensory & motor neurons.
What is the cerebrum?
-Our conscious mind
-Where voluntary actions occur (movement, speech, & problem solving)
-Awareness of sensations
What is the cerebellum?
-Coordinates mucle movement and balance, so that movement is smooth and coordinated
What is the medulla?
-Involuntary acts (breathing & blood pressure regulation)
What is the hypothalamus?
-Maintains body homeostasis
-Monitors hormone levels, electrolyte balance, and temperature
What are the 2 subdivisions of the Peripheral Nervous System?
-The somatic nervous system
-The autonomic nervous system
What is the somatic nervous system?
-Voluntary system
-Controls only skeletal muscles
-Uses acetylcholine (ACH) as a neurotransmitter
What is the autonomic nervous system?
-Involuntary system
-No conscious control over the organs controlled by this subdivison (ex. heart, digestive organs, blood vessels, & pancreas)
-Divided into sympathetic & parasympathetic.
What is the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
-Increases body activity
-"Fight or flight" system
-Prepares body for stress situation such as increasing BP, breath rate, ...
-The primary neurotransmitter is norepinephrine
What is the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
-"Resting & digesting" system
-Most active when at rest
-Decreases rate & force of heart beat, BP, breath rate
-The primary neurotransmitter is acetylcholine.
What is ganglia?
Clusters of nerve cell bodies along the nerve cord
What are hormones?
Chemicals made by endocrine glands, which are released into the blood stream
-Divided into peptide & steroid hormones
What are Peptide hormones?
-amino-acid based
-cause effects rapidly
-receptors are outside cell membrane
ex. insulin, prolactin, & glucagon
What are Steroid hormones?
-Made of cholesterol
-can easily cross membranes (lipids)
-slower effect than peptide
-binds to DNA and changes genes
-ex. aldosterone, estrogen, & testosterone
What are target organs?
The organs that are affected by a particular hormone
What hormones does the anterior pituitary gland make & secrete?
-Growth hormone (GH)
-Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
-Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
-Follicle stimlulating hormone (FSH)
-Luteinizing hormone (LH)
-Prolactin
What is the growth hormone (GH)?
-Targets all tissues & organs and cause them to grow
-In adults, it stimulates the rate at which older cells with newer cells (cell-turnover rate)
What is the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)?
-Stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormones
What is the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)?
-Stimulates the adrenal cortex (outer layer of the adrenal gland)
What is the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)?
-Target organs are the gonads (male & female reproductive organs)
-In female, it stimulates ovaries, causing maturation of ova & the release of estrogen
-In male it stimulates the testes to make sperm
What is the Luteinizing hormone (LH)?
-Targets the gonads
-Stimulates the ovaries, causing development of a corpus luteum
-In the male it stimulates the testes to make testosterone
What is Prolactin?
-Released only after child birth
-Stimulates mammary glands to make breast milk
What 2 hormones do the posterior pituitary gland secrete?
-Oxytocin
-Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
What is oxytocin?
-Causes the uterus to contract during childbirth
-Causes mammary glands to release milk
What is the antidiuretic hormone?
-Causes the kidneys to retain water. (vasopressin)
What is the primary hormone secreted by the corpus luteum?
Progesterone