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75 Cards in this Set

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Quantitative Genetics
analyzes quantitative traits such as morphology, behavior, and life history.
Environmental Variance, VE
The phenotypic variation among individuals with the same genotype
What does the response of a quantitative character to selection depend on?
The heritability of the character and the selection differential.
When do quantitative traits evolve by drift?
When the alleles are selectively neutral
what type of selection often reflects the outcome of antagonsitic selective agents?
Stabilizing
What are to effects of commercial exploitation?
1. earlier sexual maturation in Cod Fish
2. smaller horns in bighorn sheep
Phenotypic Plasticity
The production of different phenotypes from a single genotype.
Norm of reaction
the set of phenotypes expressed under differing environmental conditions.
NO G X E interaction
The Genotypes do not differ in the effect of environment on phenotype
Horizontal reaction norm
Selection may favor a constant phenotype
Canalization
The mechanism that enables organisms to resist environmental influences.
Hsp 90
a protein that stabilizes a wide variety of signal-transducing proteins in eukaryotes.
What does Hsp90 Buffering effect enable?
Genetic variation to accumulate because it is not expressed and not subjected to selection.
2 exampels of Phenotypic plasticity
1. spring and summer moth larvae
2. morphology of leaves are dependent upon the location of the aquatic plant.
additive variance
the concept of the genetic variance that is attributable to additive effects of alleles
QTL
Quantitative trait locus: a chromosome region contacting at least one gene that contributes to variation in a quantitative trait
QTL Mapping
a procedure for determining the positions of QTL on chromosomes
epistasis
phenotypic effects of synergistic interactions among loci
response to selection
the change in the mean value of a character over one or more generations due to selection
What is the Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS) model
a strategy that is adopted by a population cannot be invaded by any other mutant strategy.
Semelparous species
species that reproduce once then die, R=LM
Iteroparous species
species that reproduce multiple times, R = sum of lx mx
lx =
The probability of survival to age x
mx =
the average fecundity at age x.
Offspring produced at an _________ age _______ fitness more than those produced __________ in life because they add more to population growth, they have greater value in terms of fitness.
early, increase, later
antagonistic pleiotropy
genotypes manifest an inverse relationship between different components of fitness.
Reproductive effort
the proportion of energy that an organism allocated to reproduction rather than to growth and maintenance.
Trade off
The existence of both a fitness benefit and a fitness cost of a mutation or character state, relative to another
Cost of reproduction
animals will decrease their survival in order to reproduce
apomixis
parthenogenetic reproduction in which an individual develops from 1+ mitoticallyy produces cells that have not experienced recombination or syngamy
senescence
(biological aging) the endogenous and heredity process of accumulation of changes to molecular and cellular structure with time resulting in deterioration and death
Parental investment
parental activities that enhance the survival of existing offspring but whose costs reduce the parents subsequent reproductive success
Optimality theory
state of some character, among a specified set of plausible states, would max individual fitness, subject to specified constraints.
Life history:
focuses on traits associated with mating, survival, and evolutionary trade-offs
Sex
the union of two genomes via haploid gametes, followed at a later date by reduction, division and meiosis.
dioecious
Species with separate males and females
Hermaphroditic
Species with both sexes in an individual
Asexual Repordcution
Is carried out by vegetative propagation or by parthenogenesis
parthenogenesis
in which offspring develop from a single cell to produce a clone
what is the most common form of parthenogensis
apomixis
apomixis
meiosis is suppressed and offspring develop from an unfertilized egg
Cost of Sex
only 1/2 as many off spring as asexual individual will be produced
outcrossing
mating another genetic individual
sensory bais
when female preferences evolves before the preferred male trait. Certain traits maybe intrinsically stimulating and evoke a greater response due to the organization of the sensory system.
sex ratio:
the proportion of males in a population
sperm competition
Can occur after copulation
vegetative propagation
offspring arise from a group of cells (spread by runners and stolons)
Altruism
individuals that gain fitness by cooperating with other who share the same alleles
Coefficient of relatedness
(r) represents how much DNA is shared between two individuals. (mom + daughter = 0.5 and full cousins =0.125)
cooperation:
an activity that provides a benefit to other individuals and to the actor
hamilton's rule
an altruistic trait will increase in frequency if the benefit received by the donors relatives, exceeds the cost of the trait to the donor's fitness. rb>c
Kin selection
a form of selection whereby alleles differ in their rate of propagation by influencing the impact of their bearers on the reproductive success of individuals (kin) who carry the same alleles by common descent.
inclusive fitness
the fitness of a gene as measured by its effect on the survival of both the organisms bearing it and the genes, identical by descent, borne by the organisms relative.
mutualism:
a symbiotic relation in which each of the two species benefits by their interaction
reciprocity
a mutual exchange of favor s and/or privileges
Parent-offspring conflict
offspring try to obtain more resources from a parent that it is optimal for the parent to give.
Biological Species concept:
species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural population that are re productively isolated from other such groups
conspecific
belonging to the same species
hybrid zone
a region in which genetically distinct populations come into contact and produce at least some offspring of mixed ancestry.
phylogenetic species concept
a species is the smallest monophyletic group of common ancestry
Isolating barriers
a genetically determined difference between populations that restricts or prevents gene flow between them (does not include spatial segregation)
prezygotic Isolation
isolation occurring before the union of the nuclei of uniting gametes
post zygotic isolation
isolation occurring after the union of the nuclei of uniting gametes
sibling species
are reproductively isolated populations that are morphological similar but differ ecology, behavior, chromosomes and etc.
sister species
species that are thought, on the basis of phylogenetic analysis, to be each other's closest relatives, derived from an immedent common ancestor
mate recognition systems
physical characteristics that differentiate males of a given species
secondary contact
two formerly allopatric populations that have become genetically differentiated expand so they meet and interbreed.
allopatric speciation
populations occurring separated geographic regions
sympatric speciation
occurring in the same geographic rage and capable of encountering one another
parapatric speciation
populations occupying adjacent geographic areas, meeting at the boarder
peripatric speciation
reproduction isolation in peripatric populations as a consequence of a combination of genetic drift and natural selection
Character displacement
a pattern of geographic variation in which a character differs more greatly between sympatric than between allopatric populations of two species
vicariance
separation of a continuously distributed ancestral population or species into separate populations due to the development of a geographic or ecological barrier
founder effect speciation
same as peripatric speciation; involves genetic drift and natural selection
reinforcement
evolution of enhanced reproductive isolation between populations due to natural selection for greater isolation.