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Structure of the generalized cell

Anatomy of a Generalized Cell

Nucleus


Cytoplasm


Plasma Membrane

Nucleus

• control center of the cell


• contains DNA: needed for building proteins, necessary for cell reproduction

3 regions of the nucleus

1. Nuclear envelope: membrane of nucleus


2. Nucleolus: site of ribosome assembly


3. Chromatin: DNA wound around proteins

The Plasma Membrane

Transparent barrier


Structure has:


•Phospholipid bi-layer


(2 layers of phospholipids: heads-hydrophilic, tails-hydrophobic. Arranged “tail to tail”)


•cholesterol


•protein

Role of proteins

Specialized membrane functions:


•enzymes


•hormone receptors


•transports channels or carriers

Cytoplasm

•cellular material


(Outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane)


•site of most cellular activities


•includes cytosol and organelles

3 major components of Cytoplasm

1. Cytosol: fluid that suspends other elements. Contains nutrients and electrolytes


2. Inclusions: chemical substances, such as stored nutrients or cell products, that float in the cytosol


3. Organelles: cellular parts that perform work

Mitochondria

“Powerhouses” of the cell. Carry out reactions to break down food into ATP molecules.

Ribosome

Protein and ribosomal RNA. Site of protein synthesis in the cell

Rough Endoplasmic reticulum

Studded with ribosomes. Synthesizes proteins. Transports vesicles move proteins within cells.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Lacks ribosomes. Functions in lipid metabolism. Detoxification of drugs and pesticides.

Golgi body/ apparatus

Appears as a stack of flattened membranes. Modified and packaged proteins arriving from the rough endoplasmic reticulum via transport vesicles. Produces different types of packages: secretory vesicles (pathway 1) in house proteins and lipids (pathway 2) lysosomes (pathway 3)

Lysosomes

Garbage disposal of the cell: membranes “bags” containing digestive enzymes. Digests worm-our or non usable cell structures. House phagocytes that dispose of (eat) bacteria and cell debris.

Peroxisomes

Membranous sacs of oxidase enzyme: detoxify harmful substances (such as alcohol and formaldehyde). Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals). Free radicals -> hydrogen peroxide-> water

Cytoskeleton = cell skeleton

Network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm. Determined cell shape. Support organelles. Provides machinery for intercellular transport.

Centrioles

Rod shaped bodies. Generate microtubules. Direct the formation of miotic spindle during cell division.