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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Layers of Teeth (3)
Enamel - mineralized outer layer
Dentin - living tissue
Dental Pulp - vascular, innervated
Dental Caries
Bacteria form plaque/biofilm -> produce acid by fermenting sugars which destroy tooth

often S. Mutans, Lactobacillis
Periapical Abscess


dental caries progresses to pulp -> abscess formation at root apex

treatment: root canal, fillings

complicaitons: abcess can drain into other cavities and spaces in the face -> cellulitis, ludwig's angina (medical emergencies)
Ludwig's Angina
Periapical abcess drains to below the myloid hyoid m. to floor of mouth -> infection -> swelling -> block airway
Periapical Granuloma
ignored periapical abcess can become chronic inflammation
Periapical Cyst

chronic inflammation from periapical abcess stimulates epithelial rests (embryonic dental tissue) to form cyst

can cause pathologic fracture of mandible
plaque accumulates on tooth -> becomes calcified to tartar -> inflammation of gingiva

erythema, edema, hemorrhage, tenderness of gingiva, gingival recession
Biofilm transition to facultative bacteria to g- anaerobic bacteria

bone resorption and loss of gingival attachment - increase bone pocket depth

complications: bacterial endocarditis, lower resp infection
Dentigerous Cyst

what is it?
Cyst around unerupted/impacted tooth often 3rd molar

forms from ameloblast

complication: pathologic fracture
Odontogenic Keratocyst

what is it?
likely location?
parakeratinizing epithelial lining without rete peg formation

aggresive, resorbes bone, hard to ressect

likely location: posterior mandible
most common benign true tumor of odontogenic tissue

causes bone destruction, very agressive, poorly encapsulated -> recurrance

multioccular, intraosseous
Histology of Ameloblastoma
Pallasading columnar cells with nucleus away from the basement

Compound vs Complex
not a true tumor - harmatoma - disorganized mature of dental tissue

Compound resemble teeth
Complex don't resemble teeth
aphthous stomatitis
canker sore, oral ulcer of unknown cause likely multifactorial

can be small (minor) or large (major)

acute herpetic gingivostomatitis
HSV1 usually, sometimes HSV2

painful, vesicular eruption -> ulcers

becomes latent - hides in trigeminal gangilion -> erupts as secondary (recurrent) form on lips or hard pallet
Herpes Labialis
secondary outbreak of cold sores from HSV1 or 2 often on vermillion zone
Oral candidiasis (Thrush)

Erythematous Candidiasis

Chronic Atrophic Candidiasis
most common oral fungal infection

usually candida albicans

infection usually results from immunocompromized state (system or local)

forms white deposit that you can scrape off

Erythematous Candidiasis - no deposit - just red

Chronic Atrophic Candidiasis - due to denture
Oral hairy Leukoplakia

which patients? significance?
etiology: EBV

immunocompromised pateints

raised, white, verrucous plaques on lateral tongue

early marker for worsening of HIV
irritation fibroma
REACTIVE, localized aggregation of fibrous tissue forms a nodule

due to irritation or trauma
pyogenic granuloma

which patients are more susceptible?

REACTIVE - not pyogenic or a real granuloma

associated with pregnancy (hormonal changes)

histology: capilary vascular spaces - hemangioma - ulcerates and bleeds easily

due to irritation or trauma
peripheral ossifying fibroma

what is it?
exclusive to gingiva

REACTIVE aggregation of fibrous tissue with foci of bone or cementum
peripheral giant cell granuloma

what is it?
REACTIVE - multinucleated giant cells in vascular stroma

purple nodule

exclusive to gingiva

what is it?
white patch on floor of mouth, ventral or lateral tongue

clinical diagnosis - must rule out other disease and lesion cannot be scraped off

most are hyperkeratosis but some (25%) turn out to be dysplasia/carcinoma

should be biopsy and removed
red patch on oral mucosa - cannot be determined to be anything else

90% show dysplasia/carcinoma

should remove/biopsy
squamous cell carcinoma

gross morphology?
94% of all oral cancers

etiology - tobacco, UV light on lip, HPV, betal chewing, ethanol

gross: nonhealing ulcer with indurated, elevated, rolled boarders, PAINLESS

-sheets, chords, nests of malignant cells which invade submucosa
-keratin perals
mix of leukoplakia and erythroplakia - just as dangerous as erythroplakia
Verrucous carcinoma
papillary form of SCC that invades with borad, pushing margins rather than nests of cells

etiology: chewing tabacco

good prognosis - metastasis rare
intraoral worse prognosis than extraoral. if you cant determine it to be an amalgum tatoo, then must remove immediately
traumatic severance of duct - muscin pools in lamina propria

most common salivary gland lesion

mucin filled pseudocyst in submucosa

blockage in wharton (submandibular) duct - swelling

remove entire gland
bacterial infection of salivary gland

usually S. aureus or viridan ...often due to dehydration or medication that causes stasis
salivary gland stone - blocks flow causing stasis -> bacterial infection
pleomorphic adenoma
most common salivary gland neoplasm

pleomorphic - mixture of cells, pseudocapsule, intraloral salivary gland

benign, but can become malrignant
warthin tumor - papillary cystadenoma lymphomastosum
2nd most common salivary gland tumor



perotid only

etiology: smoking

morphology - papillary projections into cystic spaces, bilayer of cells on papillary
mucoepidermoid carcinoma
most common primary salivary gland MALIGNANCY

sheets of squamous cells - epidermoid
mucoid secerting cells
adenoid cystic carcinoma

grows along nerves and sheaths

histology: ductal cells and myoepithelial cells in caribriform, tubular, solid patterns

painful, slow, persistant (recurrent)