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12 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
areas to observe on optic disc
1) shape- circular
2)color - normal yellow orange
3)borders- crescent?
4)optic cup - NORMALLY 40% of disc
5) blood vessels - measured in disc diameter
Quadrants - inferior and superior temporal and Nasal
Vessels - arteries be veins
1) arteries exit on nasal side, 2) are typically brighter red, 3) veins are larger 2:3, AV ratio decreases with hypertension 4) vessel walls visible - hypertension, normal age. 5) silver color = severe compromised blood flow
AV nicking
Narrowing of vein on either side of the arteriole. Gunns sign
2:3, follow out 1-2 disc diameters DD
Salus' sign
Sign of impending venous occlusion. 1:3 ratio.
Eye exam sequence
Optic disc, vessels, background, macula
Retinal hemorrhages
Vitreous, preretinal, intraretinal, subretinal
Most common hemorrhages
Intraretinal layer - 1) flame shaped 2) most common in diabetes and hypertension
Blot hemorrhages
Occur in ischemic areas closer to the temporal side common in DM.
Subhyloid hemorrhage
Blot appearance, causes blindness if over macula. Causes red haze if infiltrated in vitreous.
Cotton wool patches
Common in the, diabetes, lupus, and aids.