Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/131

Click to flip

131 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Polygamy

Mormon men could have several wives

Proselytisation

Mormons should convert others

Politics

Mormon leaders should have the most political power

Property

Mormon church owned all property, not individuals

People of God

Obedience made the Mormons 'the chosen ones'

Kirtland, Ohio

Smith was tarred and feathered

Kirtland, Ohio

First Mormon temple built

Kirtland, Ohio

Mormon bank collapsed

Missouri

Mormons were anti-slave, annoyed slave owners

Missouri

Danites suspected of plotting with Indians

Missouri

Many Mormon leaders attacked

Nauvoo, Illinois

Mormons allowed army and laws

Nauvoo, Illinois

Smith runs for president

Nauvoo, Illinois

Smith destroys PP, arrested and killed

Joseph Smith

Founded the Mormon faith

Rapid expansion

People thought Mormons were recruiting too quickly

Deseret

Means honeybee, name of Mormon state

Salt Lake Valley

Dry, harsh conditions and unwanted

Brigham Young

Took the Mormons to Salt Lake City

1896

Utah became a state

Homestead Act 1862

160 acres of free land for 5 years

Homesteaders

Sod houses made of earth

Homesteaders

Farmers paid to borrow sod-busters (plough)

Homesteaders

Buffalo dung used as fuel

Homesteaders' problems

Little or no wood



Homesteaders' problems

Land too hard for light ploughs


Homesteaders' problems

Lack of water - crops failed


Homesteaders' problems

Extreme weather and plagues of grasshoppers

Female homesteaders

Setting up farms and church groups etc

Female homesteaders

Education, housework and making goods e.g. candles

Companies in the West

They built railways to attract more customers

Turkey Red Wheat

A new crop grown to combat problems

Dry farming

Turning soil after there had been rain

Texas Longhorn

Crossbreed between English Longhorns/Mexican Criollos

Civil War

Many ranchers came back to loads of cattle

Cattle ranchers

Beef popularity increased in the 1850s

Four main cattle trails

Goodnight-Loving Trail

Four main cattle trails

Western Trail

Four main cattle trails

Chisholm Trail

Four main cattle trails

Shawnee Trail

Long Drive

600,000 cattle driven North

Cowboy problems

Storms, river floods, stampedes

Joseph McCoy

Built Abilene

Cow towns

Violent - cowboys went there after the trail

Open range

No fences, cattle could graze freely

Cattlemen vs Homesteaders

Texas fever

Cattlemen vs Homesteaders

Homesteaders fenced their land, cattle drive was harder

End of bonanza

Better quality beef was produced elsewhere

End of bonanza

Quarantine laws

End of bonanza

Herds became too big

Cowboys

Had to deal with Indians

Cowboys

Were paid all at once - went wild

Cowboys

Boredom and discomfort

State

Territory with 60,000 people

1890

Frontier closed

Outlaws

Treated as heroes for helping ordinary people

James Younger gang (Jesse James)

Robin Hood - stole from banks/railways

Wyatt Earp

Arrested for horse stealing

Wyatt Earp

Killed three people

Wyatt Earp

Became a lawman despite criminal record

Vigilante groups

Normal people who defended law and order

Johnson County War
Between homesteaders and cattle ranchers

Johnson County War

James Averill and Ella Watson killed (rustling)

Johnson County War

Regulators killed 2 rustlers, attacked by locals

Johnson County War

US Army rescued the regulators

Settlers

Viewed the NA as inferior

Settlers

Brought disease to the NA

Good land

Taken by the settlers

Bad land

Left for the Indians

Reservations

The NA was forced onto these

Cherokees

Became successful - forced out of Georgia

Fort Laramie Treaty

NA allowed the army to build forts along the OT

Civil War

Attempts were made to recruit NA

Little Crow's War

Between US army and Santee Sioux (Dakota)

Little Crow

Reluctantly led his tribe in an uprising

Bozeman Trail

Ran through hunting grounds of Sioux

Railroad

Took land from the NA

Black Hills

Sacred to Sioux - gold rush there

Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse

Raised NA force against Black Hills

Custer

Outnumbered by Indians 5 to 1

Winchester vs Springfields

Indians had better technology than Custer

Custer

His men killed by NA

Custer

Split his men by three

Ghost Dance

Thought to raise the dead, fight settlers

Sioux special shirts

Thought to protect them from white bullets

Battle of Wounded Knee

US Army attacked NA unfairly

End of frontier

NA couldn't hunt - needed government aid

Buffalo

Almost wiped out by settlers

Alcoholism

Became common with NA

Education

NA children were sent to boarding school

Indian culture suppressed

Plural marriages and religious practices banned

End of the frontier

No more land, Indian reservations taken

Dawes Act

Convert tribesmen into farmers

Dawes Act

Broke up reservations into personal allotments

Low plains

East, long grass

High plains

West, short grass

Summer

Very hot and dry

Winter

Very cold and wet

Plateaux region

Flat and deserty

Buffalo

NA used for meat

Buffalo

NA used skins for wool, clothing and tents

Buffalo

NA used dung for fuel

Buffalo

NA used bones for tools

Horse

Made it easier for NA to hunt/transport

Cheyenne

Used to be farmers

Mandans

Farmed and lived in permanent villages

Tlingits

Relied on craft and trade

Navajos

Shepherds

Land

NA believed it could never be owned

Generosity

Was important to NA

NA warfare

Used to gain resources and respect

Counting coup

Showed bravery, reduced death

NA women

Looked after agriculture

NA women

Made most of the finished goods

NA women

Looked after the horses

Wakan Tanka

NA Great Spirit - present in nature

Scalping

Removing the scalp of an enemy as trophy

Medicine Man

Had a connection to the spirit world

Oral history

NA didn't write anything down

Push factor

Poverty, disease, overpopulation

Push factor

Religious/social persecution, taxation

Pull factor

New start, government encouragement

Pull factor

Tales from West, fertile cheap land, gold/silver

Donner party

Took Hastings Cut off, most died

Prairie Schooner

Wagon used by emigrants

Manifest Destiny

God given right to move West

49ers

People who went West for gold

Service industries

Prostitutes, saloon owners, shop keepers

Mining towns

Everything was expensive

Miners' courts

No permanent prisons, immediate death sentences

Mining towns

Very violent, a lot of claim jumping