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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where a plant or animal lives.
A habitat.
All the organisms and their surroundings
An ecosystem
All the organisms in an ecosystem
The community
The number of a particular organism
The distribution of organisms can be mapped using
a transect line
Good Biodiversity is found in
natural ecosystems
Poor biodiversity is found in
manmade ecosystems
In a capture recapture method, population size equals:
Number in 1st sample x number in 2nd sample
Number in 2nd sample marked
A capture-recapture method assumes:
The animals don't leave the area, die or reproduce and the markings don't affect the animals chance of survival.
Balanced symbol equation for photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Glucose is used for:
Respiration, converted to starch for storage, converted to cellulose for cell walls, converted to proteins for repairs
Starch is used for storage because:
It's insoluble, It won't affect the water concentration of the cells.
The rate of photosynthesis can be increased by:
More light, temperature or carbon dioxide.
Leaf cells are adapted for efficient photosynthesis how?
Outer epidermis lacks chloroplasts and is transparent,
Upper palisade contains most chloroplasts,
Spongy mesophyll cells have large surface are to volume ratio for diffusion
The leaf is adapted for photosynthesis how?
Broad for absorbing light, thin so gas diffuses quickly, contain chlorophyll and other pigments to absorb more spectrums.
The four pigments are:
Carotene, chlorophyll a and b, xanthophylls
Diffusion is...
The net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Diffusion rate can be increased by...
Shorter distance for molecules to travel, a steeper concentration gradient, a greater surface area for molecules to diffuse to/from
Osmosis is...
The movement of water across a partially permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of low concentration.
Turgor is...
Water pressure inside plant cells that holds it together
Plasmolysis is...
A lack of turgor
Xylem carries... Phloem carries....
Water, Food
Xylem are... cells with a ... lumen
Dead, hollow.
Phloem cells are... and are arranged in...
Living, columns
Transpiration is the movement of...
Translocation is the movement of...
The rate of transpiration increases with...
Temperature, air movement, light intensity or a decrease in humidity
Nitrogen is used for...
Phosphorus is used for...
Potassium is used for...
Magnesium is used for...
Amino acids
DNA and cell membranes
Speeding up enzyme reactions
Making chlorophyll
Lack of: Nitrogen causes:
Phosphates causes:
Potassium causes:
Magnesium causes:
Poor growth, yellow leaves
Poor root growth, discoloured leaves
Poor flower and root growth, discoloured leaves
Yellow leaves
Minerals are taken up by... which requires energy from... and moves...
Active transport, respiration, against the concentration gradient
Detritivores increase the rate of decay by... which gives a...
breaking up detritus, larger surface area.
Saprophytes digest by, which is called...
Excreting enzymes through the skin, then absorbing nutrients, extracellular digestion
Hydroponics has control over...
Disease and minerals
Intensive farming improves energy transfer...
Advantages of an internal skeleton...
Provides an internal framework, grows with the body, is flexible, attaches to muscles.
Ossification changes... to... by...
Cartilage, bone, depositing calcium and phosphorus
Synovial fluid acts...
as a cushion for shock, a lubricant for movement
Atria... blood and ventricles... blood
receive, distribute.
Impulses from the... cause the... and stimulate the... which causes
SAN, atria to contract, AVN, ventricles to contract
A donates to... receives from...
A and AB, A and O
B donates to... receives from...
B and AB, B and O
AB donates to... receives from...
AB, all
O donates to... receives from...
All, O
Agglutination is...
Antibodies attacking the antigens in the donated blood.
Tidal air
Vital capacity
Residual air
Amount breathed in/out at rest
Maximum amount of air that can be exchanged
Amount of air that stays in lungs
During an asthma attack...
Airways become inflamed, muscles in bronchioles contract, mucus builds up in airways.
Physical digestion is important because...
Allows the food to pass through digestive system, breaks food down and gives a larger surface area.
Starch breaks down into...
Proteins break down into...
Fats break down into...
Amino acids
Glycerol and fatty acids
The small intestine's large surface area is caused by
Many microvilli and villi
Each kidney has millions of kidney tubules called...
Each nephron has...
A network of capillaries surrounded by a capsule, a region where materials such as glucose are selectively reabsorbed and a region where some salt and water are selectively reabsorbed.
ADH is produced by... and does...
The pituitary gland, increases permeability of tubules for selective reabsorption of water
FSH does...
LH does...
Progesterone does...
Oestrogen does...
Stimulates an egg to develop in the ovary
Controls ovulation
Maintains uterus wall
Repairs uterus wall
Artificial Insemination is...
Sperm injected into vagina
IVF is...
egg fertilised outside the body.
Bacterial cells have:
A flagellum for movement, a cell wall, DNA
Bacteria are successful because:
Survive on a wide range of energy sources, live in a wide range of habitats, take in nutrients or produce their own food.
The growth rate of bacteria can be altered by...
changing food availability, temperature, PH or removing waste products
When a virus reproduces it will:
Attach to a host cell
Inject its genetic material into the cell
The cell makes new viruses
The cell splits open and releases the viruses
Four stages of an infectious disease
Enters body
Reproduces without symptoms (incubation)
Microbes produce toxins
Toxins cause fever
Louis Pasteur helped to prove...
Germ Theory
Joseph Lister invented the first...
Sir Alexander Fleming discovered the first... which was called...
Antibiotic, penicillin
Making Yoghurt
All equipment sterilised
Milk heated to 78 degrees (pasteurisation)
When it is cooled, bacteria added (lactobacillus)
Sampling, flavouring and packaging
Lactobacillus does what in yoghurt
Breaks the lactose down into lactic acid, which makes it taste acidic
Symbol equation for:
Glucose -> ethanol + carbon dioxide
C6H12O6 -> 2C2H5OH +2CO2
If biofuels are burnt there is no... in ....
Net increase, greenhouse gases
Biogas with more than... can be burnt in a controlled way, but with lower than ... its explosive
50% methane, 10%
Large soil particles=
Large amounts of humus=
High air content + permeability
High water + air content
Advantages of living in water
No water shortage
Less temperature variation
Support from the water
Waste products easily disposed off
Disadvantages of living in water
Water content of body needs to be controlled
Water resists movement
Steps of eutrophication
Fertilisers run into water, algae grow and cover surface, plants die due to lack of sunlight, aren't producing any more oxygen, bacteria digest them and use up the rest of the oxygen, fish die due to lack of oxygen
Sucrose is broken down by... to produce... and...
Invertase/sucrose, fructose, glucose
Fructose and Glucose are... than sucrose
Amylase digests...
Lipase digests...
Protease digests...
Enzymes can be immobilised by...
mixing it with alginate and dropping it into calcium chloride solution
To create lactose free milk...
Immobilised lactase is added, it converts the lactose into glucose and galactose
A genetically modified organism is called a...
transgenic organism
The main stages in genetic engineering are...
Identifying the wanted gene
Opening the DNA using restriction enzymes, which leave sticky ends
Inserting the new gene using ligase enzymes, closing the sticky ends
Testing the gene works
The assaying technique is...
Scientists add genes that make the bacteria resistant to antibiotics, then feed them with agar grown on antibiotics, and choose the bacteria that survive
The stages in the production of a DNA fingerprint are...
Extracting DNA from a sample such as blood, cutting up or fragmenting the DNA using restriction enzymes, separating the fragments using electropheris, then making the fragments visible using a radioactive probe.