Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Made one of the 1st recorded voyages from the Mediterranean to England, and started navigating, tides/moon and more
From Egypt and mapped what he know of the world and found the circumference of the globe
First world atlas, and established world boundaries
Journeyed inland on rivers through Europe and western Asia, very good at travelling the northern Atlantic and discovered Iceland and Greenland
Arab Traders
Made great trade routes across the indian ocean and made a lot of money
Accidentaly reached the Americas thinking it was athe indies because of innaccurate maps
Amerigo Vespucci
Traveled along the South American coast and accepted it as not being Asia but a different continent
Ferdinand Magellan
Found the southern tip of South America and crossed the Pacific
Johannes Keplar
Planetary Motion
Galileo Galilei
Theories of tidal motion
Issac Newton
Wrote Principia proving the law of gravity which explains tides
James Cook
Commander of the Endeavour which circumnavigated the globe and explored Australia and New Zealand
Benjamin Franklin
(Timothy Folgers cousin) charted the Gulf Stream and sped up travel with the trade winds
Matthew Maury
Founded the Naval Department of Charts which lead to faster and safer sea travel
Charles Darwin
Collected and classified organisms from land and sea.
Edward Forbes
(Ross' Uncle) Surveyed marine life around the British Isles and the Med and Aegean sea collecting deep sea organisms
John Ross
(Forbes' newphew) Arctic Explorer, deeper sea organisms collected
Challenger Expedition
"British Corvette" used steam power. Was for scientific purposes only and laid the foundation for the science of oceanography
Fridtjof Nansen
Arctic explorer basically freezing a ship in the ice and having it drift
"to push forward" the ship Nansen used in the drift
First to use echo sounder to find depths of the ocean (German vessal)
First scientist to systematically collect information and test the results
Nunez de Balboa
became the first European to lead an expedition to have seen or reached the Pacific from the New World.
Does Low pressure go to high pressure or high pressure go to low pressure?
high to low
Carl Sagen
Cosmos, "cosmos is, was, and always will be"
the universe
What type of rock is devils lake made of
Fast rivers create small or large rocks?
What do vertical lines in rocks conclude?
mountain building
rocks that change shape from heat and or pressure. Form deep in earths surface
bits and pieces of rock or debree that are glued together. Form in shallow areas
Rocks crystalized from a liquid rock. They are formed and cooled very quickly
Rivers or Oceans cause round rocks
James Hutton
Found Sicker Point (Scottland)which is a great example of unconformity.
Youngest to oldest Mesozoic,Paleozoic,Precambrian, and Cenozoic
Precambrian Era, Paleozoic Era, Mesozoic Era, Cenozoic Era
Precambrian Era
4.6 Billion Years-570 Million years ago
Paleozoic Era
570 Million Years- 245 Million Years ago. Paleo (old) zoic (life). First shells found from this time
Mesozoic Era
245 Million Years- 65 Million Years ago. Meso (middle). Age of the dinosaurs.
Cenozoic Era
65 Million Years- Present. Mammals.
Relative Geologic Time
When something happened in relation to something else
Absolute Geologic Time
Exactly when something happened
Principle of Superposition
In layered undisturbed rocks the oldest are at the bottom and the youngest are at the top
Principle of Cross Cutting Relationship
Anything being cut is older than whats cutting it
Principle of Faunal Succession
If fossils are in seperate in horizontal lines you will never find the order out of succession. so if they are top to bottom A,B,C you will never find A below C or C above A etc.
One element that changest to a different element.
Whats the # of Protons?
Atomic #
Atomic # + Neutrons=
Atomic Mass
Whats a half life
The time it takes for a half of the parent to break down to the daughter element
To calculate how old something is what do you do?
Takes the # of parents around now/# of parents around + # of daughters now. Then however halves that is you times that number by the HL
What needs to be true to make the equation for HL true
No daughters can produce anything. The decay rate has to be constant. Assumption of a closed system (stuff isn't getting out of the rock)
Whats the max amount of half lives something can have?
What are the 4 layers of the earth from inner most to outter most
Inner core (solid, iron and nickle) outer core (liquid, iron and nickle) Mantle (Iron and magnesium)Crust (egg shell)
Characteristics of Oceanic Crust: Location
Under Ocean basins
Characteristics of Oceanic Crust: Whats it made of?
Basaltic Rocks. (Igneous)
Characteristics of Oceanic Crust: What color are the rocks?
Dark Colors (Shallow=cold=fast crystalization) Fine Grained
Characteristics of Oceanic Crust: Iron and Silicon make up?
High Iron, Low Silicon
Characteristics of Oceanic Crust: Density
High Density
Characteristics of Oceanic Crust: Thin or thick
Characteristics of Continental Crust: Location
Under continents
Characteristics of Continental Crust: Whats it made of
Granite Igneous Rocks
Characteristics of Continental Crust: Rock characteristics
Course grained, different colors, so it developed slowly. Deep=hot=slow=light colors
Characteristics of Continental Crust: Iron and Silicon make up
Low Iron, High Silicon
Characteristics of Continental Crust: Density
Characteristics of Continental Crust: Thick or Thin
Whats the Lithosphere and what are some characteristics
its the crust and upper matle. Cool and brittle. Floating on the Asthenosphere
Is the Lithospheric Oceanic Plate fluid or sticky?
is the lithospheric Continental plate fluid or sticky
Are oceanic plates higher than continental or lower? and why
lower, because continental are less dense and thicker
Continental Drift? Why could this be true?
Proposed by Wegener. Look at the shapes of the continents, rock types, and fossils.
What made the idea of Continental drift more accepted?
Sea Floor Spreading.
Is oceanic lithosphere or continental lithosphere younger and why?
Oceanic because it is continually being created and destroyed.
What are the 3 types of plate boundaries?
Divergent (<--I-->) Convergent (-->I<--) and Transform ^Iv.
Higher Temperature creates Higher Velocity which creates what density
decrease in density so it would float
Whats the formula to find the depth of the ocean through sonar?
d=v x t/2
Divergent plates have a fast or slow spreading rate?
which ocean has a faster spreading rate?
What connects divergent plate boundaries?
transform plate boundaries
What temperature creates stronger earthquakes?
cold (glass blower)
How strong are the volcanoes in a transform plate boundary?
Whats a good exampkle of a transform plate boundary?
san andreas fault
Ex of a divergent plate boundary
Landforms of divergent plates
volcanoes on a divergent plate?
yes, non explosive
What is the only kind of divergent?
ocean ocean
eqs in a divergent?
yes weak (near magma) and only shallow
whats the distance of oceanic plates?
0-70 km
whats the distance of continental plates?
70-150 km
Ocean Ocean Transform land forms?
remains flat except for the fracture zones
ocean ocean transform volcanoes
ocean ocean transform eqs
Yes, but weak because they are near magma
continent continent transform boundaries ex
san andreas fault
c-c transform landforms
flat with fracture zones
c-c transform volcanoes
no volcanoes
c-c transform eqs
shallow and intermediate. Very powerful
what is the difference between lvl 1 eq and lvl 2 eq
30x stronger
what is considered a big one for eqs
8 mags
o-c convergent landforms
trenches and composite cones
o-c convergent volcanoes
yes, explosive
o-c convergent eqs
all types because of subduction but they are weak
o-o convergent landforms
trenches and some crests
o-o convergent volcanoes
non explosive
o-o convergent eqs
all depths, very strong. Strongest are at the surface
c-c convergent ex
c-c convergent landforms
mountain ranges
c-c convergent volcanoes
c-c convergent eq's
shallow and intermediate, very strong.
what type of rocks are volcanoes
pahoehoe is smooth or rough
aa is smooth or rough