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140 Cards in this Set

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obstetrician/gynecologist ob/gyn physician specialized training in care of women during preg labor delivery other gyn health issues
family physician
FP physician specialized primary care including obstetrics
Nurse practitioner
nurses specialized training primary care/obstetrics
certified nurse midwife CNM
nurse women low-risk pregnancies independent or with doctors
ob diagnosis treatment of complications pregnancy/childbirth maternal fetal specialists
amniotic sac
thin-walled sac surrounds fetuss during preg fluid made by fetus and amnion (membrane covers fetal side of placenta) protects injury temp
opening at end of anal canal
lower part of uterus projects into vagina fibrous tissue muscle circular
fetus unborn baby from 8th week after fertilization
placenta organ flat cake grows during preg metabolic interchange fetus sand mom oygen food other
umbilical cord
rope-like cord connecting fetus to placenta contains 2 arteries vein carry oxygen nutrients to fetus
uterine wall
wall of uterus
uterus womb
hollow pearo-shaped organ lower ab between bladder and rectum sheds lining each month
part of female genitals behind bladder in front of rectum forms canal from uterus and vulva
amni/o amnion
lact/o milk
nat/o birth
pelv/i pelvis
vagin/o vagina
-cyesis pregnancy
-para give birth
-tocia labor
pregnancy divided 3 phases trimesters
1st trimester most fragile period all major organs and systems formed
most birth defects/miscarriages occur
2nd/3rd trimester fetus sfully formed grows and matures rapidly
1st 0-12
2nd 12-24
3rd 24-40 weeks
some use
42 weeks divided by 3 with
1st 0-13
2nd 14-28
3rd 29-42 weeks
prenatal care with physician for entire duration of pregnancy
prenatal exams
every month 1st week - 28
every 2 weeks from 29th - 36
weekly from 37th until delivery
additional scheduling if preexisssting medical cocnditions twins diabetes
all tested for Rh factor during early weeks of preg
mother Rh-neg father Rh-positive and fetus Rh-positive
mother may produce antibodies against Rh-positive fetus leads to anemia in fetus
incompatibility problems monitored and med treatment available prevent formation of Rh antibodies during preg
prenatal care
prepare mother to be for delivery of healthy baby tests performed to assess any potential risks monitor growth devel of fetus
first prenatal visit
personal medical history
weight measurement
blood pressure
measurement of uterus
physical exam
fetal heart rate
prenatal screening tests
previous and current medical conditions
current meds
previous surgeries
1st prenatal visit
maternal paternal family history
personal gynecological ob history
menstrual hist stillbirths miscaariage
nutrition exercise avoid alcohol drugs tobacco domestic violence
pelvic exam
note size and position of uterus
determine age of fetus
check pelvic bone size structure
Pap test abnormal cells
lab tests
urine tests bacteria sugar pro
blood test blood type
blood screening test diseases rubella
genetic tests inherited disease sickle-cell anemia Tay Sachs
screening tests infectious diseases STDs
1st trimester
all major body organs and systems of fetus forming
ebryo implants son uterine wall
amniotic sac surounds fetus made by fetus and amnion covers fetal side of placenta protects regulate temp
placenta ***
organ flat cake attaches uterine wall villi fetal blood vessels grow from umbilical cord into villi exchanging nourishment and waste with mother's blood
fetal blood vessels separated from mother's blood by thin membrane
umbilical cord***
rope-like cord connecting fetus to placenta 2 arteries and vein carry oxygen and nutrueint to fetus sand waste products away from fetus
during first trimester fetus susceptible to damage from substances alcohol drugs med illnesses
most dramatic changes and development first trimester first 8 weeks embryo by end of that time weighs 1/2-1 ounce 3-4 inches
end of 4 weeks***
all major systems organs form
embryo looks tadpole
neural tube brain and spinal cord digestive system heart circ system form
beginnings of eyes ears develop
tiny limb buds appear
heart beats
end of 8 weeks***
all body systems continue to develop function circulatory nervous digestive urinary sys
embryo human shape
mouth develop tooth buds
eyes nose mouth ears more distinct
arms legs visible
fingers toes webbed be distinguished
main organs develop hear baby's heart with Doppler
bones begin develop nose and jaws developing
embryo constant motion cannot be felt
after 8 weeks
embryo referred to fetus offspring
1-1 1/2 inches all major organs systems formed
9-12 weeks***
external genital organs developed
eyelids formed
fetal movement increases
arms legs fully formed
voice box larnx forms in trachea
fetus most vulnerables first 12 weeks all major organs systems forming bedamaged if fetus exposed to drugs germ measles radiation tobacco chem and toxic substances
enen though organs body sys fully formed end of 12 weeks fetus cannot survive independently
Changes in Mom to be
mammary glands enlarge swell and tender estrogens and progesterones
areolas*** enlarge darken covered with white bumps Montgomery's tubercles enlarged sweat glands
veins ***more prominent on surface of breasts
uterus ****growing begins to press on woman's bladder urinate more
hormones mood swings irritability others
hormones cause morning sickness nausea vomiting***
constipation**** growing uterus presses on rectum and intestines

muscular contractions in intestines help move food digestive tract slowed high levels of progesterone heartburn indigestion constipation gas
clothes tighter ab increases
fatigue physical emotional demands
cardiac volume increases *****40-50% beginning to end of preg increased pulse rate
Kegel exercises
pelvic floor exercises help tone muscle in vagina and perineum
Tighten muscles around vagina/anus
hold muscles 8-10 seconds
relax muscles
tighten and relax several times a day
all major organs and systems have formed in fetus next six months fetus becomes baby and grow weight will 7x***
13-16 ***inches 2-3 pounds
fetal development includes:
fetus kicks****** moves turn side to side
can hear mother's voice*** eyes in front***
ears to side of head
creamy white*** substance vernix caseosa appears on fetus protects thin fetal skin gradually absorbed
develops reflexes swallowing and sucking****
fetus respond to stimuli
placenta fully developed
brain undergoes important growth from 5th month on
fingernails*** on fingers and toes fully separated
goes through cycles sleep*** and wakefulness
skin wrinkly red soft downy hair lanugo***
hair growing on head
fat*** forms on fetus
eyelids open eyebrows and lashes visible
fingerprints/toeprints formed
rapid growth
20th*** week halfway point
if born at 24*** weeks may survive in a neonatal intensive care unit
most physically enjoyable 2nd trimester
no more morning sickness, fatigue*** breast tenderness
decrease in human chorionic gonadotropin hCG adjustment estrogen progesterone
appetite may increase
feel movement of fetus quickening 20 weeks***
uterus grown to height belly** button pregnancy visible
skin on belly may itch pain sides of body uterus ***stretches
lower ab*** ache ligaments stretch to support uterus
need to urinate may decrease uterus grows out of pelvic cavity less pressure on bladder
mother's nose congested nosebleeds increase in hormones es/pro affect mucous membranes in nose
gums spongier bleed easily increases in hormones mucous mem in mouth
varicose veins hemorrhoids*** appear
white-colored vaginal discharge leukorrhea*** colored or bloody=complications
weight gain = backaches***
skin pigmentation*** may change on face or abdomen pregnancy hormones
heart burn indigestion and constipation*** continues
3rd TRIMESTER 8-40 week

lungs maturing fetus posistions head-down end of tri 19-21 inchess long 6-9 pounds
fetus see and hear***
brain*** continues develop
kidneys lungs*** mature
36th ***week head engage drop into pelvic area called lightening
bones of skull*** remain soft easier pass birth canal
irises slate blue*** real color not appear several days or weeks***
fetus suck thumb cry***
38-40 weeks lanugo ***disappeared almost totally
covered in vernix caseosa*** vernix protective coating on skin
head usually turn downward ***last couple of weeks
3rd trimester more uncomfortable due date nears
difficulty taking deep breaths or sleep others free from discomfort
increased skin temp fetus radiates body heat mother hot***
urinary frequency pressure on bladder***
blood pressure decrease*** fetus presses main vein returns blood to heart
swelling of ankles hands face edema*** retain fluids
hair grows on arms legs and face increase/courser*** hormone stimulation hair follicles
leg cramps frequent***
Braxton-Hicks*** contractions false labor
stretch marks appear on ab breast thighs buttocks***
Colostrum ***fluid in breasts nourishes baby until breast milk available leak nipples
dry itchy skin persist on ab*** skin grows and stretches
skin pigmentation*** dark patches skin on face
constipation heartburn indigestion*** continue
increased leukorrhea contain more mucus***
backaches persist increase intensity***
hemorrhoids persist increase severity***
varicose veins*** in legs persist increase severity
fetal meconium
amniotic sac membrane ruptures normal color clear **greenish or brown fetal meconium normally baby's first bowel movement fetal distress
abnormal fetal heart rate
120-160*** bpm normal when contractions*** occur if in distres give mom oxygen increas fluids change mom's position
abnormal position fetus
normal birth head-down facing mom's back ***if not delivery more difficult
head down but facing front
face down in mom's pelvis instead of top of head
brow down in mom's pelvis
breech butt down first
one shoulder in mom's pelvis
half first trimester sometimes full preg aggravated by stress traveling certain foods protein/fat lessen by eating small more often carbs vegies
severe hyperemesis gravidarum dehydration intavenous fluids nutrition
fatique blood volume other fluids increase body works provide nourishing environment
anemea can cause fatigue anemia=reduction on oxygen carried through bloodstream rbc's
increased pressure on rectum perineum constipation***
varicose veins
swollen purple*** veins common in legs around vaginal opening late preg caused by pressure on legs and pelvic veins increased blood volume
heartburn indigestion***
pressure on intestines stsomach pushes contents up esophagus eating smaller meals don't lie down
bleeding gums
more spongy blood flow increases
rare craving to eat substances dirt clay or coal nutritional deficiency
swelling/flluid retention
mild swelling common severe preeclampsia*** high blood pressure lying on left side elevate legs shoes
skin changes
hormone levels brown blotchy patches may occur mask of pregnancy chloasma skin around nipples dark line middle of ab
stretch marks
pinkish marks abs breasts thighs buttocks*** rapid increase in weight marks fade
yeast infections
hormones leukorrhea*** thick whitish discharge itching
congested bloody nose
lining of respiratory*** tract receives more blood congestion small blood vessels damaged increased blood pressure nosebleeds
pressure on rectum*** intestines interfere digestion bowel movements hormones slow down food processed fluids exercise fiber
weight increases balance*** changes staining back pelvic joints loosen proper posture lifting techs reduce strain
low blood pressure uterus compressing major arteries
low blood surgar
low iron***
quickly moving from sitting to standing
hormones = headaches 1st trimester*** rest nutrition fluid alleviate headache symptoms
bleeding or leaking fluid from vagina***
blurry/impaired vision***
unusual/severe ab pain backaches***
frequent severe continuous headaches***
decrease in baby's*** movements
fever over 100 ***degrees
pain/burning urination***
strong cramps
swelling face fingers feet***
inability tolerate foods liquids***
muscular convulsions***
excessive vomiting diarrhea***
continuous progressive contractions of uterus help cervix open dilate thin efface labor starts 2 weeks before or after date of delivery no one know what triggers onset of labor
signs of labor
bloody show mucus mixed with blood
contractions uterine muscle spasms less than 10min apart
rupture of amniotic sac membranes bag of waters within 24 hours labor if not induced prevent infections
latent phase 5-20min apart cevix dilates 3-4cm effaces longest least intense
second phase of first stage
active phase
dilatation of cervix 4-7cm contractions longer severe frequent 3-4 min
third phase of first stage
cervix 8-10 cm contractions strong lasting 60-90 seconds every few minutes
SECOND stage
cervix completely opened ends with delivery of baby pushing stage baby's head visible at opening of vagina crowning 30 minutes to 2 hours first preg
THIRD stage***
after baby delivered delivery of placenta lasts few minutes passage of placenta out of uterus
each labor different time varies first 12-14 hours
mother/fetus risk
pregnancy continued too far past due date
mom has preeclampsia eclampsia chronic hypertension
diagnosis poor growth fetus
techniques of induction
vaginal suppositories prostaglandin hormone stimulalte contracions
IV infusion of oxytocin hormone pituitary gland
rupturing artificially amniotic sac membranes
relaxation techniques sused during labor natural childbirth no meds breathing techniques
medical staff perform exam of abdomen size position of fetus exam of cervix***
blood pressure
frequency intensity contractions
fetal heart rate
urine blood*** samples
IV fluids given prevent dehydration** meds** or epidural*** anesthesia
fetus monitored fetal heart rate***
choice determined by
patient family preference***
health of patient***
health of fetus***
physician's recommendation***
3 main types of pain management
nonmedicated measures
natural childbirth
relaxation muscle groups relaxed in series
massage light stroking jetted bath shower
heat/cold therapy
warmed towel cold pack
imagery mental pictures create relaxed feelings
meditation/focused thinking focusing on object task breathing
breathing techniques different patterns types of breathing direct mind away discomfort
changing positions moving aroujnd during labor rocking Tailor sit position birthing ball walking swaying
meds meperidine smallest dose possible respiratory depression in large amounts
anesthesia meds cause loss of sensation pudendal block epidural anesthesia analgesia spinal anesthesia analgesia general anesthesia
local block anesthesia injected in perineal area*** epidural repair or tear
pudendal block
anethesia injected vaginal*** area complete numbness in vaginal area
epidural anesthesia epidural block**
numbing meds catheter space surrounds spinal cord in lower back loss of sensation of lower body labor vaginal and cesarean deliveries low blood pressure mom
epidural analgesia walking*** epidural med is analgesic relieves pain does not numb body allows movement low blood pressure mom labor and vaginal deliveries postpartum headache
spinal anesthesia
single dose of anesthetic agent into spinal cord canal*** acts quickly loss of sensation/movement lower body cesarean deliveries
spinal analgesia***
injecting med into spinal cord canal pain relief without numbing combo epidural anesthesia or analgesia labor pain relief
general anesthesia***
causes woman sleep emergency cesarean deliveries
cervix lower part of uterus projects into vagina fibrous tissue/muscle circular shape
during preg cervix lengthens barrier labor begins cervix shortens dilating 10 cm 4 inchess effacement thins first stage of labor
fetal meconium
amniotic sac membrane ruptures normal clear but if greenish/brown=fetal meconium first bowel movement fetal distress
abnormal fetal heart rate
normal 120-160 if distress give mother oxygen fluids change position
abnormal position
normal head-down facing back
head-down facing front
face down into pelvis
brow down in mother's pelvis
breech butt first
one shoulder in pelvis
depending on position deliver fetus as it presents attempt to turn before delivery or cesarean delivery
delivery is the moment when fetus followed by placenta exits mother's body
mom moved to delivery room or remain fathers or partners encouraged actively involved relaxation tech breathing
sqatting sitting semi-sitting gravity helps push baby through
during delivery process monitor vital signs blood pressure pulse fetal heart rate vagina
physician assist fetus' head and chin out of vagina when head out rotates fetus side eases shoulders out and rest
episiotomy incisison through vaginal wall and perineum help deliver fetus
after delivery mom contiue push to deliver placenta then episiotomy incision stitched given oxytocin uterus massaged uterus contract prevent excessive bleeding
sometimes planned and scheduled some result of complications
anesthesia taken effect ab incision made opening made in uterus amniotic sac opened baby delivered through opening
delivery stitch ab incision oxytocin contract uterus preventing bleeding
conditions for cesarean section
previous cesarean secion
fetal distress
abnormal delivery presentation
labor fails to progress does not progress normally
twins or other multiples
placental cocmplications placenta previa = placenta blocks cervix presents risk of becoming detached prematurely from fetus
when baby delivered umbilical cord cut and clamped near navel ends dependence on pladcenta for oxygen/nutrition
with first breath air moves into lung airways
before birth lungs not used to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide needs less blood supply
fetal circulation sends most blood supply away from lungs special connections in heart and large blood vessels
baby begins to breathe air change in lungs help exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
some babies excess amounts of fluid in lungs stimulating baby to cry by massage and stroking help bring fluid up suctioned from nose and mouth
newborn wet from amniotic fluid can become cold drying baby usning warm blankets and heat lamps help prevent heat loss knitted hat/skin-to-skin on mother'ss chest/ab warms baby
HEALTH ASSESMENT scoring system virginia apgar anesthesisologist to evaluate condition of newborn
APGAR given at 1 min and 5 minutes after birth
A activity muscle tone**
P pulse rate**
G grimace reflex irritability*
A appearance skin color****
R Respiration***
score of 7-10 normal
4-6 needs some resuscitation
oxygen careful monitoring
3 or less immediate resuscitation/livesaving techniques
meassurement of temp heart rate and respiratory rate
measurement of weight length and head circumference*** determine if baby is normal for number of weeks of pregnancy small or underweight babies/large babies may need special attention/care
cord care
cleansing of umbilical cord stump purple antiseptic dye** helps prevent infection
bath after temp*** stabilized first bath given
footprints taken and recorded*** in medical record
before baby leaves delivery area id bracelet*** with id numubers placed on baby and mom
babies have 2 wrist and ankle checked each time baby comes goes from room
healthy babies susually stay with mother immediate asessments weight length meds first bath in mom's room baby placed in mother's arms ASAP
first hour or two baby alert wide awake phase baby turn to familiar sond of mom's voice focus of vision 8-12 inches baby cradled in mom's arms to face
during first hour or two breast feed innate ability to begin nursing immediately
some meds during labor/delivery affect baby's sucking ability healthy babies can breast feed
initial feeding stimulates breast milk production
causes contraction of mom's uterus prevent excessive bleeding
awake for surgery rare sits mom requires gen anesthesia no conscious for birth
regional anesthesia epidura or spinal part of body numbed for surgery mom awake hear and see baby as soon as born
babies checked by nursery nursse or pediatrician near mom in operating room
babies by c-sec difficulty clearing lung fluid mucus extra suctioning of nose mough throat needed or deeper suctioning in windpipe required
once checked wrap baby warmly bring baby to mom babies born by c-sec watched in nursery for short time
weighing and meds performed in nursery
breast feeding begins in first hours in recovery room
lots of pain first days need help for mom and baby
baby's body systems work together in new way after birth sometimes difficulty in transition Apgar determines if problems
if not doing well treatment given in delivery room hysician/other members of heath care team work together
prematurely difficult delivery birth defect special care available Neonatal Intensive Care Unit NICU
NICU advanced tech/trained health pros interediate or continuing care areas for babies not as sick
common test during pregnancy
alpha-fetoprotein screening
chorionic villus sampling
fetal monitoring
glucose tolerance test
Grooup B strep culture
genetic screening
alpha-fetoprotein screening AFP
blood tes measues AFP in mom's blood protein*** produced by fetal liver present in fluid surrounding fetus am/fluid crosses placenta to mom's blood MSAFP Serum***
abnormal levels of AFP
open neural tube defects spina bifida ONTD
Down syndrome
chromosomal Abnormalities
defects in ab wall of fetus
miscalculated due date
2,3,or 4 part screening multiple marker*** screen
other parts of AFP
hCG human chorionic gonadotropin hormone placenta
estriol hormone placenta
inhibin*** hormone placenta
ultrasound*** confirm dates of preg look at fetal spine body parts for defects or amniocentesis
multiple marker screening not diagnostic not 100%*** accurate may be fase-positive or false-negative
blood drawn 15-20 weeks of prg 16-18 ideal
blood sample sent to lab for analysis
results available 1-2 weeks
sample of amniotic fluid diagnose chromosomal disorders open neural tube defects ONTDs spina bifida***
15-20 weeks who ar increased risk chromosome abnormalities over 35 abnormal maternal serum screening test
insert long thin needle through mom's ab into amniotic sac for sample fluid contains cells shed by fetus genetic*** info
mom's ab cleansed antiseptic
local anesthetic numb skin
ultrasound guide hollow needle into sac*** sample of fluid withdrawn
strenuous activities avoided 24 hours
cramping during amniocentesis
twins multiples samples each sac sometimes cannot be performed
fluid sent to genetics lab cells can grow analyzed 10days-2weeks results
Chorionic villus samplin CVS
prenatal test ssample of placental tissue chromosomal abnormalities family history does not provide info on neural*** tube defects spina bifida*** need blood test to screen
CVS performed 10-12 weeks
ultrasound guide catheter near placenta***
tissue removed syringe
transabdominal CVS through mom's ab into uterus
cramping during or after
tissue sent to genetic lab grow and analyzed
10days to 2 weeks
twins multiples need from each placenta not always feasible
fetal monitoring
late pregnancy during labor checking rate and rhythm of fetal heartbeat*** 110-160 bpm
not enough oxygen emergency cesarean delivery
fetoscope*** Doppler*** device electronic fetal monitoring
gel applied to ab ultrasound transducer
ultrasound transducer attached straps fetal heartbeat to recorder displayed on screen printed special paper
during contractions external tocodynamometer top of uterus with belt record patterns contractions
internal fetal monitoring necessary accurate reading water broken cervix partially dilated to use attach electrode to scalp of fetus fetal scalp electrode
glucose tolerance test
24-28 weeks meassures levels of sugar ***in mom's blood gestational diabetes
Glucose tolerance test
mom drink only water
fasting sample of blood drawn
special glucose solution to drink
blood drawn several times over several hous
Group B Streptococcus GBS
bacteria in Genital tract 15-40% no problem before pregnancy during preg cause chorioamnionitis infecion of placental tissues postpartum infection uti's preterm labor birth
GBS life-threatening infections newborns pneumonia meningitis contract during labor/delivery
no tratment prevents GBS
diagnostic tec high-fequency sound waves create image if internal organs check normal fetal growth verify due date
Reasons for ultrasounds
establish dates of preg
determine number of fetuses
identify placental structures
diagnose ectopic preg miscarriage
examine uterus pelvic anatomy
detect fetal abnormalities
18-20 weeks
confirm preg dates
number of fetus/placenta
assist prenatal tests amniocentesis
examine fetal anatomy for abnormalities
check amount of amniotic fluid
examine blood flow patterns
observe fetal behavior/activity
examine placenta
measure length cervix
monitor fetal growth
Third Trimester
monitor fetal growth
check amount amniotic fluid
biophysical profile
positon of fetus
assess placenta
abdominal*** ultrasound
gel applied to ab ultrasound transducer glides over gel on ab create image
transvaginal*** ultrasound
smaller transducer inserted into vagina fests against back of vagina create image sharper image
ultrasound images captured in still photographs video document findings
contantly improved refined info help manage care for preg and fetus
Genetic screening
family history
cystic fibrosis
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
hemophilia A
sickle cell anemia
polycystic kidney disease
Tay-Sachs disease
genetic screening methods include
ultrasound scan
alpha-fetoprotein test multiple marker test
precutaneous umbilical blood sampling fetal blood from umbilical cord
Preg ultrasound method of imaging fetus in pelvic organs during preg
ultrasound machine high-frequency sound waves bounce off body structures create picture
pain** relief bloody vaginal discharge changes to brown then whitish couple of weeks
tender vaginal area
painful contractions continue uterus returns to orighinal size
breast engorgement
extreme fatigue*** soreness
take naps as baby naps
wear supportive bra cold packss relieve breast engorgment swelling warm compresses stimulate letdown of milk icepacks binding alleviate if not breastfeeding
warm shallow baths sitz baths 2x a day relieve soreness speed healing
after cesarean keep incision clean dry
baby blues***
3-4 days after delivery
feelings of disappointment
crying no reason
postpartum depression
more serious longer lasting

sadness,hopelessness,fatigue,exhaustion,poor concentration,confusion,fear of harming newborn,self,mood swings diminished libido,feelings of guilt,low self-esteem, uncontrolled crying,overdconcern/attentiveness for newborn, or lack of interest for newborn,appetitie changes,sleep disturbance,resentment,memory loss,feelings of isolation
causes of postpartum depression
changing of roles spouse/parent
hormonal changes during after delivery
personalfamilly history mental illness
marital strife
postpartum depression diagnosed
thyroid screening for hormonal*** metabolic abnormalities
treatment postpartum depression
seek proper treatment early
treatment determined based on
age overall health med history
severity duration symptoms
breast feeding
tolerance for meds procedures therapies
opinion or preference
treatments include
meds hormonal treatments/antidepressants
psychological treatment mother family spouse
peer support support groups educational classes
stress management relaxation training
assertiveness training set limits family members not become overwhelmed overworked
birth control
activity meds or equipment used prevent pregnancy
methods work different ways
creating barrier** blocks sperm reaching egg
killing sperm
preventing eggs** being released
changing cervical mucus **hinder sperm from moving into uterus
altering tissue **lining uterus egg cannot implant
different types of birth control
no prescription
spermicides*** foams or creams in vagina kill sperm some protection against STDs
male condoms**
thin tube made of latex
female condoms ***
liner made of latex in vagina
natural** family planning
timing to avoid fertile days monitoring temp changess cervical mucus rhythm method high risk for pregnancy
oral contraceptives controlling pituitary hormone secretion estrogen progestin regulate menstrual cycles decreasing length iron stores prevention ovarian endometrial cancers breast diseases fibroadenoma cystic reduce rheumatiod arthritis
capsules hormone levonorgestrell implanted under skin upper arm prevent ovaries releasing egg 5 years
progesterone-like drug injection stop ovulation 3 months
combines estrogen progestin monthly injection
diaphram cervical cap dome shaped rubber cup flexible rim covers cervix
intrauterine*** device IUD
placed in uterus throuogh cervix preventing egg being fertilized in tubes attaching to wall containing hormones annually copper IUDs 10 years
removal uterus ovaries fallopian tube permanent
tubal ligation tubal occlusion tying the tubes
cut cauterize band fallopian tubes prevents egg trasported to uterus can be reversed
cutting clamping vas deferens blocked spem die absorbed by body
high risk pregnancy
withdrawal before ejaculation
sex during menstuation
standing immediately after sex
douching after sex
taking no precautions
preventive/prophylactic surgery remove tissue does not yet contain cancer cells hass probability becoming cancerous
diagnostic remove samples tissue suspicious area testing and evaluation (lab/pathologist) confirm identify type determine stage
curative remove/destroy cancerous tissue removal tissue around tumor and nearby lymph nodes
surgery also performed for
palliative purposes relieve discomfort
supportive purposes
allow placement of device aid in delivery of meds
restorative/reconstructive purposes
repair replace damaged destroyed areas of body