• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
____ - organic compounds (carbon-containing) that are soluble in organic solvents (alcohol) and insoluble in water
____ - a glycerol backbone w/ 3 fatty acids attached, one to each of glycerol’s 3 carbon atoms
____ - differ from one another due to the differences in the fatty acids that they contain.
Fatty acids can differ in 3 ways:
number of carbon atoms (4-22)
number of double bonds “degree of saturation” (0-6)
the position of the first double bond (for polyunsaturates only)
____ – saturated w/ hydrogens = no double bonds ex. Corn oil
Saturated fatty acid
____ – one double bond ex. Peanut oil
Monounsaturated fatty acid
____ – 2 or more double bonds ex. lard
Polyunsaturated fatty acid
____ – unsaturated fatty acids with 20-22 carbons and 5-6 double bonds
Fish oil and breast milk
____ – lie flat, stack, have solidness
Saturated fatty acids
____ – have double bonds, are kinky not stacked which grants fluidity
Unsaturated fatty acids
____ – liquid at room temp
____ – solid at room temp
____ – adding hydrogens to unsaturated fatty acids, ie saturating fatty acids and removing double bonds
____ are unsaturated fatty acids in which the H atoms are across from each other rather on the same side of the double bond. This is produced during hydrogenation and results in no kink i.e. stackable and therefore solidness.

Stick margarines contain more ____ that softer tub products.
Trans fatty acids
trans fat
Manufacturers ____ to solidify them. This increases shelf life of the oil because double bonds are susceptible to “attack” from oxygen which leads to rancidity and offflavor, which is especially true for commercial frying.

Foods that contain hydrogenated oils-
hydrogenate oils
processed bakery food
____ are fatty acids not naturally found in food. They are used as food additives because they can function as emulsifiers to keep oil and water from separating.
Mono and diglycerides
For products that need to be hard food manufacturers have switched to using naturally harder ingredients, such as ____.
palm oil
For commercial frying, seed companies have developed high oleic (a ____, vs 2 double bonds) canola oil and low linolenic (____) soybean oil.
Both of these decrease the number of ____ in the oil, therefore reducing the likelihood of oxidation during frying.
monounsaturated fatty acid
2 double bond
double bonds
____ – glycerol backbone w/ 2 fatty acids and phosphate group, the fatty acids end is the hydrophobic end and the phosphate group is the hydrophilic end. They can be found as a food additive as an emulsifier.
____ – cholesterol and derivatives, multiring structure. Only dietary source for cholesterol is animals, plants have other “weird” sterols.
____ – provide energy from fatty acids for daily use and storage (body fat), provide body insulation and protection for internal organs, and help to maintain the integrity of skin and hair.
____ – form the basic structure of all cell membranes in the body, provide insulation for nerve fibers, and act as emulsifiers along with bile in the small intestine.
____ – are used to make eicosanoids
Individual fatty acids
____ – serves as the starting material for bile, vitamin D, steroid hormones, is a component of all cell membranes (the multi-ring structure provides rigidity for the more fluid fatty acid “tails” of the phospholipid bilayer)
We store the majority of our energy as ____ instead of glucose because they are a more concentrated energy source and because for every gram of glucose stored as glycogen there are 2.6 grams of ____ stored along with it.
At rest and during light activity about ____ of the energy being used by the body comes from fatty acids. We also need it to help carry the vitamins into the body, and there are two essential fatty acids.

The dri’s recommend that ____ of total calories from from fat.
Saturated fat max = ___ of daily calories
Dietary lipids are in digested/emulsified by ____ and then they are absorbed as fatty acids, mono/diglycerides or glycerol all lipids are then packaged into ____ (a type of lipoprotein) and uptake of these into ____ of the lymphatic system.
____ – structures that are designed to carry the fat-soluble lipids through the watery environment of the body by surrounding them with water-soluble phospholipids and proteins.
____ – delivery of dietary triglycerides to cells
____ – role is to pick up extra cholesterol from dead cells and get it back to the liver for removal.
____ – function is to deliver its cholesterol to cells, including the liver where it will be used to make bile and other compounds
____ – function is to deliver its triglycerides to fat cells for storage, or other cells for energy
____ – composed of triglycerides from the diet
____ – composed of triglycerides from the liver
____ – composed of cholesterol from the liver
____ – composed of cholesterol from dead cells
There is no ____ and ____ cholesterol in the diet! There is only ____ type of cholesterol in the diet, it comes from the cell membranes of the animal products we consume.
High ____ contribute to plaque formation when they are oxidized by cells in the blood vessel walls. Once oxidized, ____ cannot be released back into the bloodstream so it builds up in the vessel walls as part of the plaque.
____ – fat may increase LDL levels
____ – fat may increase LDL and decrease HDL
____ – fat may decrease LDL and decrease HDL
____ – fat may decrease LDL but not decrease HDL
DRI recommends that ____ and ____ fat be kept to a minimum.
Daily value set cholesterol intake at less than ____.
300 mg/day
____ may reduce: blood pressure, blood clotting and inflammation
Omega -3 fatty acids
____ (vitamins C, E and certain phytonutrients) may reduce the oxidation of LDL.
Diets low in refined carbohydrates and high in fiber may reduce serum ____ levels.
Soluble fiber may reduce levels of serum ____ by blocking its absorption from dietary sources.
____, added to certain foods may reduce levels of serum cholesterol by blocking its absorption from dietary sources
Plant sterols
Other potential benefits of ____:
Anti-inflammatory: Arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, migranes
omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA)
Food additives replace the “feel” of fat but! Cant be heated to ___
high temps = cant fry
In general current research suggests that ____ of fat is more important than ____ fat with respect to reducing risk for chronic disease. This includes restricting the less desirable (saturated and trans) as well as increasing the more desirable (monounsaturated and omega-3).
Mediterranean diet sources of:
Monounsaturates – olive oil, nuts and seeds
Omega-3 fatty acids – fish (20-22 carbons) nuts and seeds (18 carbon)
Antioxidants – fruits and vegetables and legumes
Low glycemic index carbohydrates/soluble fiber – legumes
Monounsaturates – olive oil, nuts and seeds
Omega-3 fatty acids – fish (20-22 carbons) nuts and seeds (18 carbon)
Antioxidants – fruits and vegetables and legumes
Low glycemic index carbohydrates/soluble fiber – legumes
____ is sucrose polyester it has fatty acids tacked on
It has issues, it is indigestible, may cause indigestion (diarrhea, gas) it may cause loss of fat soluble vitamins and other fat-soluble phytonutrients. It is typically only found in chips.
____ – is composed of an amino group, an acid group, a hydrogen and a side group all on a central carbon. They differ from one another in the formation of their side group.
____ can differ due to difference in their: size, shape and chemical characteristics
Amino acid
Side groups
____ – 9 for adults, cant be made in the body therefore they must come already made in the diet.
Essential amino acids
____ – 11 for adults, can be made in the body aas long as there is a good source of nitrogen (other amino acids)
Nonessential amino acids
____ – provide structure, regulate body processes, maintain homeostasis of fluid, sodium/potassium and acid/base, transport other nutrients provide defense and provide energy
____ - is needed to run metabolic processes, the body will not take apart the heart, but it can be common to take apart other lean tissue when energy is not available.
____ – ____, amino acids are linked together, amino group to acid group, by following the “recipe” or blueprint embedded in every cell’s DNA. Each amino acid has its own unique 3-part “code” that tells the cell which one to attach next.
____ – some of the side groups, interact with each other- attracting, chemically bonding with, repelling, each other causeing the molecule to fold into a specific 3-D shape
For some proteins the finished product is actually several polypeptide molecules linked together.
protein synthesis
step 1
step 2
DRI for protein is based on a per body weight basis (ideal body weight) that is it is ____ for every kilogram of (desirable/ w/o excess body fat) body weight
.8 grams
____ - has all of the essential amino acids in amounts proportional to human need. Animal proteins are higher quality proteins. (exception gelatin)
Higher quality protein
____ - is low in one or more of the essential amino acids relative to human needs. Vegetable proteins are lower quality. (exception soy)
Lower quality protein
The DRI would be ____ if it was all higher quality protein
The DRI would be ____ if it was all lower quality protein.
Only ____ of dietary protein must be in the form of essential amino acids.
Dieters are at risk for losing significant amounts of lean tissue if their ____ is inadequate. That can contribute to their inability to keep the weight off over the long term. The less lean tissue you have the lower your total calorie requirement (BMR). Which in turn is the ____ food you can eat.
protein intake
An athlete can go up to ____/kg of protein per day
The average American consumes ____ to ___ times the DRI, which is 1.2 to 1.6 g/kg
What is not used for energy or for specific protein needs will be converted to ____. Leaving ____ behind to be converted to urea in liver and excreted in the urine.
The more excess protein the more urea the more ____ needed the more urine.
____ are a complete waste. Especially in light of the fact that us intake of total protein is more than adequate.
amino acid supplements
The FDA did not want people to be focusing on their ____ because most people get enough.
protein intake
Protein is denatured in the stomach by ____ and then digested by ____. In the small intestine the remaining smaller polypeptides are digested by more ____ and absorbed in the small intestine as ____.
amino acids
____ – to take a protein out of its natural form by disrupting the side group interactions causing the molecule to unwind from its 3-d shape.
____ – one plant protein completes the essential amino acid profile of the other.
When larger ____ or whole ____ find their way into the body they may elicit an allergic reaction – an immune system response to a protein, in some people.
Reactions can be mild to severe (anaphylactic shock)
Food allergies are most likely to occur in young children because of a less developed GI tract but can develop anytime. True food allergies occur in only about ____ of adults and ____ of children.
____ plants have bacteria that live symbiotically in their root systems that convert nitrogen in the air in the soil to ammonia = nitrogen fixing bacteria. The plant can then use the ammonia to make amino acids. This : reduces the need for nitrogen-containing fertilizer and tends to increase the overall protein content of the plant, including its fruit = ____.
____ is a low fat high quality alternative to animal protein that is high in a variety of vitamins and minerals.
Possible link of ____ to a reduction in CVD, and Breast Cancer.