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177 Cards in this Set

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At what age does the energy need of an active child approximate that of an adult?
10 years
In the US a child is most likely to be deficient in ___ than any other nutrient
Iron (True of every age/sex group except for adult men)
Which of these is most likely to make a child "hyper"? Hard candy, fish, chocolate, shellfish, peanut butter
Chocolate
Which of these has the lowest potential of promoting tooth decay? Dried fruit, granola bars, doughnuts, pizza, potato chips
Pizza
Which of these is most likely reason that students are polled to see who has eaten breakfast?
I want to make sure that they have sufficient energy to succeed in class
Why do adolescent boys have a high need for iron?
Needed to support an increase in lean body mass
Low calcium intakes paired with ____ can compromise the development of peak bone mass during adolescence
Lack of physical activity
In teens, the consumption of ____ is associated with an increase of later-in-life bone disease
Soft drinks
What is the cause of PMS?
UNKOWN
In the US which of these age groups is the fastest growing segment of society?
Over 85 years
What is the relationship between BMI and health for older adults?
Optimal BMI for individuals over the age of 70 yrs is higher than the optimal BMI for younger individuals
In general older individuals tend to lose ____ and gain _____
Bone and muscle/ fat
How can you reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis?
Lose weight
Which diet is best for reducing symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis?
A diet high in 100% fruits, vegetables, whole grains and omega-3 fatty acids
How might you be able to reduce your risk of developing macular degeneration
Eat dark green leafy vegetables
In the elderly which of these factors is noted for its potential to result in a secondary deficiency of nutrients such as vitamin B12, folate, iron, and zinc?
Reduced stomach acid secretion
In what way is following the mediterranean diet similar to being on an energy-restricted diet?
Both result in a reduction in oxidative stress
What does the acronym DETERMINE stand for? (Predictors of malnutrition in the elderly)
Disease, eating poorly, tooth loss or oral pain, economic hardship, reduced social contact, multiple medications, involuntary weight loss or gain, need of assistance with self-care, elderly person older than 80 years
T of F children should not be allowed to participate in family meal planning?
False
The elderly should not engage in weight training
FALSE
Globally, what percentage of the world's population suffers from vitamin and mineral deficiency?
About 50%
Ozone depletion allows for crop damage attributable to harmful solar radiation. How does such solar radiation directly impact the health of a human?
Increases risk of skin cancer
What is the single greatest cause of preventable brain damage and mental retardation
Iodine deficiency
What is the world's leading cause of blindness in young children?
Vitamin A deficiency
What is the name of the largest national food recovery program in the US?
Second Harvest
What percentage of children in the US live in poverty?
Over 16%
Which of the following shopping lists contains items that are NOT eligible for purchase with food stamps?
Tomatoes, milk, dishwashing liquid, cereal, and bananas - cleaning items not allowed for purchase with food stamps
Globally what is the major cause of famine?
Armed conflict
Globally, what 3 nutrients are most likely to be lacking in the diet of a malnourished person?
Iron, iodine, vitamin A
How can irrigation reduce agricultural yields?
Irrigation can increase soil concentrations of salt
Due to the amount of mercury in their flesh, the FDA recommends limiting the consumption of any of the fish listed here with the exception of ___. Shark, tile fish, sardines, king mackarel, swordfish
Sardines
Globally, how many people lack access to safe, clean water?
1.2 billion
How does an increasing atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide affect plant growth?
As carbon dioxide increases, global temps rise and therefore the rate of plant growth declines
What term is given to the maximum number of individuals that a given area can support?
Carrying capacity
What is the societal relationship between education and birth rate?
Inverse correlation or negative correlation
Which of these environmental problems is a direct result of overgrazing by livestock?
Desertification
Which of these dietary lifestyles leaves the smallest ecological footprint? Carnivorous, omnivorous, vegetarian, fish-eating, breatharian
vegetarian
T or F - In Asia & Africa few women are allowed to participate in agricultural activities
FALSE - 60-80% of women in these countries participate in agriculture
T or F Many people are suffering from hunger or starvation because the earth's food supply is already insufficient to feed all the people alive?
FALSE
T or F - Genetic engineering technology can potentially increase agricultural yields
TRUE
Which of the following is not a cause of "hyper" behavior in children?
Too much sugar
What is a source of "hyperactive" behavior that is often overlooked in children?
Caffeine
Low intake of what vitamin will speed the progression of osteoarthritis?
Vitamin D
Authorities recommend limiting fruit juice in children's diets for fear that overconsumption wmay promote what 2 things?
Obesity and dental caries
Which of the following would be the most appropriate snack for an active, normal weight child? Ice cream, candy, oreos, cola
Ice cream
What percentage of children in the US live in poverty?
Over 16%
Which of these if NOT a common food recovery method? Food gleaning, ORT, perishable food rescue, prepared food rescue, nonperishable food collection
ORT
A six-year-old child needs approximately ___calories per day
1600
Absorption of ____ appears to increase with aging
Vitamin A
What is the most important nutrition concern for the person with Alzheimer's disease?
Prevention of weight loss
To prevent early onset of cataracts the diet should provide an ample supply of what 2 vitamins?
Vitamin C and Vitamin E
What group of people receives the least amount of protein each day? A dog in the US, A cat in the US, a college professor in the US, the poorest of the poor, a child receiving WIC
The poorest of the poor
Globally, what is the major cause of famine?
Armed conflict
A teenager consumes a fast food meal consisting of a hamburger, chocolate shake, and french fries. In order to consume an adequate diet, which of the following should be chosen at other meals during the day?
Foods high in vitamins A and C, good fiber sources
All of the following effects of watching television contribute to obesity except.. No energy required, time spent could have been more energy consuming, correlates with snacking, present positive images of overweight people?
Presents positive images of overweight people
Globally, how many people lack access to safe, clean water?
1.2 billion
Deforestation, overgrazing, and other agricultural uses of land contribute to each of the following except: desertification, species extinction, water pollution, improvement in ozone, soil erosion
An improvement in the ozone layer
Hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle also alter?
Glucose tolerance and food intake
Older adults should drink at least ____ cups of water each day.
6
Children's intakes of which of the following nutrients typically fall below recommendation? Calcium, iron, vit A
Calcium and Iron
Which of these is NOT a consequence of increased atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide? global warming, storms, increased flooding, drought, skin cancer
Skin cancer
What is a famine?
A widespread and extreme scarcity of food that causes starvation and death
A widespread and extreme scarcity of food that causes starvation and death is known as a _____
Famine
What is the world's leading cause of blindness in young children?
Vit A deficiency
An elderly woman in a nursing home no longer goes outside to enjoy the sunshine and fresh air, has reduced her meat intake and has trouble with concentration. What vitamins might she be deficient in?
Vit D and Vit B12
Body mass index is unsuitable for use with: adolescents, athletes, pregnant women
Athletes and pregnant women
A water loss of as little as about ___ body weight can reduce a person's ability to do muscular work.
2.5%
The committee on DRI links high-protein diets with increased risk of: cancer, osteoporosis, malnutrition
Cancer and osteoporosis
Which of these activities will utilize the LEAST amount of body fat?
Doing 10 repetitions lifting as much weight as you can as fast as you can (fat utilization occurs under aerobic conditions, this is an anaerobic activity
What is an effect of anabolic steroid use?
Enhances performance (but comes with GRAVE health risks)
What are the characteristics of a person with metabolic syndrome?
Obesity, high blood pressure
Which substance may actually enhave performance? Whey protein, chromium picolinate, caffeine, carnitine, amino acids
Caffeine
The accumulation of excess visceral fat in the body may lead to health complications because
It can lead to chronic inflammation which has been linked to heart disease
A woman weighs 21 pounds and is 65 inches tall. Calculate her BMI
35
To an endurance athlete, what are the advantages of consuming a high-fat, low-carb diet?
No advantages to an endurance athlete (can impair performance and health)
How does smoking act to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease?
Smoking introduces toxins and deprives the body of oxygen, making the heart work harder
Trans and saturated fat intake combined should account for no more than __- of caloric intake.
10%
Donna weighs 160 lbs. How many grams of fat should Donna consume in order to meet the DRI recommendation, if she consumes 1600 calories a day?
35-62
What is the DRI for exercise?
60 minutes, 7 days a week
Which of the following types of foods sustain stiety longer than other foods?
High in fiber and high in protein
Consumption of which of these plays a role in preventing HTN: carreine, ephedrine, salt, potassium, insulin
Potassium
A lack of cruciferous begetable in the diet is associated with colon cancer What is an example of a cruciferous vegetable?
Broccoli
What role of Vit E might prove to be of special benefit to an athlete?
It is an antioxidant
What is the most common, overt symptom of HTN?
HTN ahs no overt symptoms
Why is it a bad idea to replenish lost fluids by drinking beer?
Contains alcohol, a diuretic which promotes fluid loss
John routinely consumes 7000 cal/day in excess of his energy expenditure. How much body fat would john store per day as a result?
2 lbs
What would be the best pre-game meal
Water - hydration, banana
How does HDL cholesterol reduce CVD risk?
Delivers cholesterol to liver removing it from the bloodstream so it can not be deposited in arterial walls
Which mineral plays a role in preventing HTN: sodium, chloride, magnesium, sulfur, phosphorous
Magnesium
Which nutrient does NOT directly relate to immunity? Protein, Vit E, Vit A, zinc, fluoride
Fluoride
What are the three requirements for the growth of most foodborne disease-causing bacteria?
Warmth, moisture, nutrients
If you want to serve meatloaf warm and do not want to endanger your guests, what is the min. temp. at which the meatloaf should be maintained?
140F
A hamburger is not safely cooked until it has reached an internal temperature of ____.
160
What is contained in raw eggs that might make a person sick?
Salmonella
Which of these is particularly affected by mercury contamination? Reproductive sys, immune sys, nervous sys, endocrine sys, integumentary sys
Nervous system
According to the FDA, what is the health impact on humans of consuming the milk or meat of cattle that has been treated with bovine somatotropin (bST)
NONE
Which preservation method is used to prolong the shelf life of boxed milk that is stored at room temp?
Ultrahigh temperature treatments
Which of these food additives destroys thiamin? BHA, Sulfites, nitrites, salt, vit C
SULFITES
From exposure to onset of symptoms can be up to ___- for an E. cole infection
8 days
What is a healthy pattern of weight gain for a pregnant woman carrying a single fetus?
305lbs in the first trimester and 1 lb per week during the remainder of the pregnancy
What appears to be the primary cause of the nausea that often accompanies the first few months of pregnancy?
Hormonal changes
What appears to be the primary cause of heartburn that often accompanies pregnancy?
Hormonal changes
Prenatal exposure to what substance (illegal drug) increases the risk of paralysis?
Cocaine
The FDA and EPA both recommend that a pregnant woman should not consume any____. Salmon, catfish, albacore tuna, swordfish, shrimp
Swordfish
Alcohol is most likely to have the greatest advese impact on the embryo/fetus when consumed during which part of pregnancy
First 2 months
What group exhibits the largest number of risk factors for gestational diabetes?
Pacific islander, obese, fam. History of diabetes
Symptoms such as high BP, proteinuria, edema of the face, hands, feet and ankles signify what condition in a pregnant woman?
Preeclampsia
Lactation increases a woman's energy needs by only ____ calories per day.
500
What impact does smoking have on lactation?
Smoking decreases the amount of milk the woman produces
What is colostrom
An antibody and white blood cell rich substance
Most growth occurs during which stage of development? Fetal, zygote, embryo, umbilical, premature, body building
Fetus
What is the protein DRI for a pregnant woman?
25 grams per day more than that of a woman who is not pregnant
Why are the essential fatty acids so important to the developing fetus?
They play a major role in brain growth, function and structure
Deficiency of what vitamin increases the risk of neural tube defects?
Folate
Women on what type of diet may need to take vit B12 supplements during pregnancy
One who consumes no animal products
Which body fat storage pattern in most associated with health risks?
Central abdominal fat
What BMI range is considered to be overweight for the average adult?
25-29.9
Women who exceed a waist circumference of ____ and men who exceed _____ are at greater risk of central obesity related health problems
35"/40"
Approximately how much body fat will you gain if you consume as little as 1750 extra calories over the course of 1 year?
0.5 lb
A food that contains 34 grams of carbs, 20 grams of fat, 5 grams of protein, and 1 gram of alcohol will provide ___ kilocalories
343
Which region of the brain controls hunger
Hypothalamus
What is the difference between satiation and satiety
Satiation occurs during a meal- results in cessation of eating; satiety occurs after a meal - reduces desire to eat
Which of these hormones might lead you to eat even when you are no longer hungry?
Endorphins
How does ghrelin compare to leptin?
Ghrelin stimulates appetite, leptin inhibits appetite
Which of the energy-yielding nutrients is most satiating?
Protein
Under extreme conditions, such as starvation, the brain can adapt to using _____ for energy
Ketone bodies
The initial weight loss on a low-carb diet is mainly _____
Water and 100% glycogen
What is considered a reasonable rate of weight loss for an overweight person?
10% of body weight over twelve months
T or F - Being overweight and a nonsmoker poses less of a health risk than being of appropriate weight and a smoker
TRUE
T or F - The risks of a high BMI appear to be greater for those of European ancestry than for those of African ancestry
TRUE
T or F Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of death from all causes
TRUE
Is Hypertension a health risk associated with deficient body fat?
NO
Is a person with deficient body fat at increased risk during hospitalization?
YES
Is a person with deficient body fat at increased risk of fighting a wasting disease?
YES
Doe s a person with deficient body fat have an increased chance of death from cancer?
YES
If a person was consuming 3000 cal/day and they were given 4 weeks to lose 4 lbs, how many cal would they have to cut per day?
500 cal
What is the main function of carnitine?
It carries fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane
What are the claims made by the manufacturers of carnitine?
If you have more carnitine you will burn more fat and produce more energy by sparing glycogen during endurance events.
What is a side effect of taking carnitine?
Diarrhea
Why are claims that carnitine will increase energy and burn more fat unfounded?
They are flushed through with unpleasant side effect. The body makes carnitine on it's own and no additional supplementation is necessary. There is no proof that it burns fat!
What are the claims made by the manufacturers of DHEA?
It will burn fat, increase muscle and slow the aging process
What are the hazards of taking DHEA?
MANY life threatening diseases such as cancer & serious liver damage, oily skin, acne, body hair growth, liver enlargement, irreversible feminine changes in males & aggressive behavior
What claims are made by manufacturers of creatine?
It has the ability to enhance performance during intense activity by enhancing stores of creatine phosphate in the muscles
What are the hazards of taking creatine?
Cramping, gastointestinal distress & risks to people with medical conditions such as kidney disease
Name 3 food born illnesses
Salmonellosis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, campylobacteriosis
How is salmonellosis caused?
Raw eggs, poultry or meat that has not been properly cooked.
What bacteria is the cause of hemolytic-uremic syndrome?
E-coli
What bacteria causes campylobacteriosis?
Campylobacter jejuni bacterium
What are 2 bacteria commonly found in poultry?
Campylobacter jejuni bacterium, salmonella bacteria
What is the incubation period for campylobacter jejuni bacterium before it causes symptoms?
2-5 days
What is the incubation period of salmonella?
1-3 days
What temperature should food be stored at to keep it safe to consume?
At or below 40F
What are the symptoms of salmonellosis?
Nausea, fever, chills, vomitting, abdominal cramps, disrrhea and headache. Sever cases can be fatal
What is the name for the nervous system paralysis caused by campylobacter jejuni bacterium?
Guillan-Barr syndrome
What are the symptoms of campylobacteriosis?
Diarrhea, nausea, comiting, abdominal cramps and fever, possible bloody stools, and rarely, nervous system paralysis
What is the recommended treatment for most foodborne illness?
Rest, fluids and hospitalization if dehydration occurs or if there is kidney failure
Why are antibiotics not used for most foodborne illnesses?
Many antibiotics are resistant to foodborne bacteria and some such as E. coli can be worsened by antibiotics
What type of bacteria is commonly found on ground beef?
E. Coli
What disease is caused by E. coli?
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome.
What is the onset of hemolytic-uremic syndrome?
1-8 days
What are the symptoms of hemolytic-uremic syndrome?
Severe bloody diarrhea, abdominal pn, vomiting, acute kidney failure, possibly death. If survives- possible kidney problems, HTN, blindness, paralysis and colon probs
At what temperature should ground beef be cooked to be sure all bacteria is killed?
At or above 160F
How many drinks can a pregnant woman have without worrying about affecting her fetus?
NONE
What 2 important nutrients are needed in large amounts during pregnancy due to their important role in cell reproduction?
Folate and Vit. B12
What effect does alcohol have on oxygen supply to a fetus?
Deprives oxygen - even one drink can do significant damage to baby's nervous system & cause birth defects
What effect does alcohol have on nutrient transport to a fetus?
It interferes with the transport of nutrients across the placenta resulting in malnutrition.
What is fetal alcohol syndrome?
A combination of more than 40 known problems caused by a woman drinking while pregnant.
Can damage caused by fetal alcohol syndrome be undone?
NO
What 2 specific problems does adequate folate intake during pregnancy prevent?
Neural tube defects such as spina bifida and anencephaly
How many calories does a woman need to EAT each day to make up for the 500 calorie deficit created by lactation? How are the other calories made up?
330 - the other 170 calories are used from the mother's fat stores gained during the pregnancy.
How many cups of fluid should a lactating woman get to avoid dehydration?
13 C
Other than folate and vit B12 what 4 other nutrients are necessary during pregnancy?
Zinc, iron, magnesium, and calcium
What SPECIFIC effect can cigarette smoking have on the fetus?
It can KILL the fetus. Nicotine and cyanide in cigarettes are toxic limiting supply of Oxygen and nutrients causing growth and development probs & behavioral & intellectual probs later