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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
• Degenerative diseases-
chronic, irreversible diseases characterized by degeneration of body organs due in part to such personal lifestyle elements as poor food choices, smoking, alcohol use and lack of physical activity
• Risk factors-
factors known to be related to (or correlated with) diseases but not proved to be casual
• Plaques-
mounds of lipid material mixed with smooth muscle cells and calcium that develop in the artery walls in atherosclerosis.
• Inflammation-
part of body’s immune defense against injury, infection or allergens, marked by increased blood flow, release of chemical toxins and attraction of white blood cells to infected area
• Heart attack-
event in which the vessels that feed the heart muscle become closed off by an embolism, thrombus or other cause with resulting sudden tissue death. Also known as a myocardial infarction
• Stroke-
sudden shutting off of the blood flow to the brain by a thrombus, embolism, or the bursting of a vessel
• Cancer-
a disease in which cells multiply out of control and disrupt normal functioning of one or more organs
• Metastasis-
movement of cancer cells from one body part to another, usually by way of the body fluids
• Caloric effect-
drop in cancer incidence whenever intake of food energy (calories) is restricted
• Systolic pressure-
first figure in a blood pressure reading which reflects arterial pressure caused by the contraction of the heart’s left ventricle
• Diastolic pressure-
second figure in a blood pressure reading, reflects the arterial pressure when the hearts is within beats
• Foodborne illness-
illness transmitted to human beings through food and water; caused by an infectious agent (foodborne infection) or a poisonous substance arising from microbial toxins, poisonous substance arising from microbial toxins, poisonous chemicals, or other harmful substances (food intoxication). Also called food poisoning.
• Botulism-
an often-fatal food poisoning caused by botulinum toxin, a toxin produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium that grows without oxygen in nonacidic canned food
• Outbreak-
for foodborne illnesses, two or more cases arising from an identical organism acquired from a common food source within a limited time frame. Government agencies track and investigate outbreaks, but tens of millions of individual cases of foodborne illness go unreported each year.
• Ultrahigh temperature-
a process of sterilizing food by exposing it for a short time to temperatures about those normally used in processing
• Hemolytic-
uremic-syndrome- a severe result of infection with E. coli, characterized by abnormal blood clotting with kidney failure, damage to the central nervous system and other organs, and death, especially among children
• Cross contamination-
the contamination of a food through exposure to utensils, hands, or other surfaces that were previously in contact with a contaminated food
• Irradiation-
the application of ionizing radiation to foods to reduce insect infestation or microbial contamination or to slow the ripening or sprouting process. Also called cold pasteurization.
• World Health Organization-
an agency of the United Nations charged with improving human health and preventing or controlling diseases in the world’s people
• Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)-
a preservation technique in which a perishable food is packaged in a gas-impermeable container from which air has been removed or to which another gas mixture has been added.
• Bacteriophage-
a virus that infects and destroys bacteria
• Pesticides-
chemicals used to control insects, diseases, diseases, weeds, fungi, and other pests on crops and around animals. Used broadly, the term includes herbicides (to kill weeds), insecticides (to kill insects), and fungicides (to kill fungi).
• Residues-
whatever remains; in the case of pesticides, those amounts that remain on or in foods when people buy and use them
• Organic gardens-
gardens grown with techniques of sustainable such as using fertilizers made from composts and introducing predatory insects to control pests, in ways that have minimal impact on soil, water, and air quality
• Biotechnology-
the science of manipulating biological systems or organisms to modify their products or components or create new products; also called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology
• Organic foods
- foods meeting strict USDA production regulations for organic, including prohibition of synthetic pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, drugs and preservatives and produced without genetic engineering or irradiation.
• Contaminant-
any substance occurring in food by accident; any food constituent that is not normally present
• Margin of safety-
in reference to food additives, a zone between the concentration normally used and that at which a hazard exists. For common table salt, for example, the margin of safety is 1/5 (five times the concentration normally used would be hazardous).
• Low birthweight-
birthweight of less than 5 ½ pounds; predictor of probably health problems in the newborn, probably indicator of poor nutrition status of the mother before and or during pregnancy
• Gestation-
period of about 40 weeks from conception to birth; the term of a pregnancy
• Implantation-
stage of development during the first two weeks after conception in which the fertilized egg embeds itself in the wall of the uterus and begins to develop
• Critical period-
finite period during development in which certain events may occur that will have irreversible effects on later developmental stages. A critical period is usually a period of cell division in a body organ
• Neural tube defect (NTD)-
a group of nervous system abnormalities caused by interruption of the normal early development of the neural tube
• Anencephaly-
an uncommon and always fatal neural tube defect in which the brain fails to form
• Listeriosis-
a serious foodborne infection that can cause severe brain infection or death in a fetus or a newborn; caused by the bacterium listeria monocytogenes, which is found in soil, and water
• Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)-
the cluster of symptoms including brain damage, growth retardation, mental retardation, and facial abnormalities seen in an infant or child whose mother consumed alcohol during her pregnancy
• Preeclampsia-
a potentially dangerous condition during pregnancy characterized by edema, hypertension and protein in the urine
• Colostrum-
a milklike secretion from the breasts during the first day or so after deliver before milk appears; rich in protective factors
• Antigen-
a substance foreign to the body that elicits the formation of antibodies or an inflammation reaction from immune system cells. Food antigens are usually large proteins. Inflammation consists of local swelling and irritation and attracts white blood cells to the site.
• Anaphylactic shock-
a life-threatening whole-body allergic reaction to an offending substance
• Epinephrine-
a hormone of the adrenal gland that counter-acts anaphylactic shock by opening the airways and maintaining heartbeat and blood pressure
• Food aversion-
an intense dislike of a food, biological or psychological in nature, resulting from an illness or other negative experience associated with that food.
• Food intolerance-
an adverse reaction to a food or food additive not involving an immune response
• Hyperactivity- (in children)
a syndrome characterized by inattention, impulsiveness, and excess motor activity; usually diagnosed before age 7, lasts six months or more, and usually does not entail mental illness or mental retardation. Properly called ADHD and may be associated with minimal brain damage
• Gatekeeper-
with respect to nutrition, a key person who controls other people’s access to foods and thereby affects their nutrition profoundly. Examples are the spouse who buys and cooks the food, the parent who feeds the children, and the caretaker in a day-care center.
• Senile dementia-
the loss of brain function beyond the normal loss of physical adeptness and memory that occurs with aging
• Oral rehydration therapy (ORT)-
oral fluid replacement for children with severe diarrhea caused by infectious disease. ORT enables parents to mix a simple solution for their child from substances they have at home
• World food supply-
quantity of food, including stores from previous harvest available to the world’s people at a given time
• Carrying capacity-
total number of living organisms that a given environment can support without deteriorating in quality
• Sustainable
-able to continue indefinitely. In this context, the use of resources in ways that maintain both natural resources and human life; the use of natural resources at a pace that allows the earth to replace them.
• Biofuels-
fuels made mostly of materials derived from recently harvested living organisms. Biofuels contribute less to the carbon dioxide burden of the atmosphere because plants capture carbon from the air as they grow and release it again when the fuel is burned; fossil fuels such as coal and oil contain carbon that was previously held underground for millions of years and is newly released into the atmosphere on burning
sources of iron
meat, grains
site of absorption of water and site of most intestinal bacteria
secretes enzymes that break down carbs, protein, fats
small intestine and pancreas
glucagon __ blood sugar
insulin __ blood sugar
raises, lowers
fiber is ___
a polysaccharide
phytochemicals in foods ____ cancer risk
what do phytochemicals in supplements do?
decrease, don't change anything
how many oz from whole grains
4 of 8oz
what has whole grains?
what determines order on ingredient list?
where are enzymes to break down protein?
stomach, small intestines, pancreas
what digests carbs?
saliva, pancreatic juice, enzymes in intestines
sugar alcohol has ___ calories
what happens with lowering to normal blood sugar?
decreased risk of heart disease, stroke
lipid synthesized in liver, makes hormones, vitamin D
most common type of lipid in foods, body
vitamin E toxicity
decreased blood clotting
helps protect against heart disease
essential fatty acids
not synthesized by body
Increased proportion of omega 3
lowers blood pressure
tuna contains ___
protein function
water balance, blood clotting, making antibodies
when calories are low ___ can be used for energy
amino acids
source of B12
decreases LDL oxidation
vitamin E
do alcoholics need vitamins?
calcium toxicity from supplements
constipation, kidney stones, decreased absorption of other minerals
BMR includes
doesn't include
includes: respiration, nerves, hormones
not: digestion
hormone to suppress appetite
can glucose be derived from amino acids?
what does amenorrhea impact?
to replenish electrolytes during exercise
eat pretzels