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71 Cards in this Set

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what is pica

craving weird stuff you normally would never eat

if a mother has HIV/AIDS, what nutrition problems can she face

protein energy malnutrition, vitamin and mineral deficiency, inadequate weight gain

what problems in pregnancy do adolescences face?

risk for anemia, premature birth, low birth weight babies, infant mortality, extra demands for growth and development

what is colostrum

first milk from lactation

what is prolactin?

hormone; stimulates milk production

what is oxytocin?

hormone; stimulates milk release (let down reflex)

what are three benefits of breastfeeding for the mother

convenience, recovery of uterus size, help women return to pre preg weight faster

what are the benefits of breastfeeding for infants

optimal nutrition, protects infant from infections and illness (diarrhea, ear infections, pneumonia, asthma), convenience

what is the best marker of nutritional status

growth (using growth charts)

explain weight gain expectancies in infancy

DOUBLE birth weight by 4-6 months


TRIPLE birth weight by 12 months

explain length gain expectancies in infancy

increase length by 50% by 12 months

what is protein in breast milk important for during infancy

growth

what is carbohydrates in breast milk important for during infancy

energy, enhances absorption of calcium and phosphorus

what is fat in break milk important for during infancy

energy, nervous system development, accumulation of fat stores

how many wet diapers/stools should a baby have per day

SIX wet diapers


THREE or more stools

what are the developmental readiness signs that a baby is ready for solid foods

lack of extrusion reflex, head and body control

what is colic

crying nonstop and distress

what usually disappears within 12-18 months

gastroesophageal reflux

what can lead toxicity effects

slow growth, iron deficiency anemia, damage to brain and CNS

what four things can tobacco use during pregnancy effect

risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and low birth weight

what four things can alcohol use during pregnancy effect

risk for fetal alcohol syndrome, physical defects, mental defects, and growth retardation

what five things can drug use during pregnancy effect

risks for low birth weight, preterm delivery, miscarriage, birth defects, and infant addiction

what should you avoid during pregnancy

alcohol, certain types of fish, no more than 300 milligrams of caffeine per day

what do you need an overall increased need for during pregnancy

calories, vitamins, minerals

what do you need the HIGHEST increase for during pregnancy

iron and folate

what are the main source of extra calories

complex carbohydrates

what amount of macronutrients is appropriate during pregnancy

LOW fat, MODERATE protein, HIGH carbs

how much weight gain is recommended during pregnant

gain 25 to 35 pounds

when is the blastogenic stage

first 2 weeks

when is the embryonic stage

weeks 2 to 8

when is fetal stage

week 9 to delivery

what happens in the blastogenic stage

cells differentiate into fetus and placenta

what happens in the embryonic stage

development of organ systems

what happens in the fetal stage

growth

what type of vitamin and how much do you need before conception

synthetic folic acid, 400-800 micgrograms per day

what vitamin should you avoid before conception

high doses of vitamin A (retinol)

what age does a boys growth spurt happen

between 12 and 13 years

what age does a girls growth spurt happen

between 10 and 11 years

during a boys growth spurt how much height/weight should they gain

8 inches in height


45 pounds in weight

during a girls growth spurt how much height/weight should they gain

6 inches in height


35 pounds in weight

when you get older, what vitamin can you not absorb as well anymore

vitamin B12

what is vitamin D needed for when you get older

bone health, calcium balance, reduced skin synthesis

where are antioxidants found

fruits and vegetables

what are antioxidants important for

reduce oxidative stress and degenerative diseases

what are vitamins NOT good for

energy sources

what are types of fat soluble vitamins

vitamins A, D, E, K

what are types of water soluble vitamins

vitamins 8 B Vitamins, and vit C

where are fat soluble vitamins absorbed and how are they stored

absorbed with fat into lymphatic system, stored in LARGER quantities

where are water soluble vitamins absorbed and how are they stored

absorbed into bloodstream, stored in SMALL amounts

what is the purpose of vitamins in food

enrichment and fortification

what does enriched mean

replacing lost ingredients

what does fortified mean

adding extra nutrients to food

what are inorganic elements

minerals

what types of sources are minerals found in

both plants and animals

what is hypertension

high blood pressure

what does hypertension increase your risk for

heart disease, stroke, kidney disease

what should you do to reduce hypertension

reduce sodium intake to lower blood pressure

what is osteoporosis

decreased bone density

what are things you can do to reduce risk of osteoporosis

have diets rich in calcium and vit D, eat foods that are high in calcium, regular physical activity, healthy body weight, avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol intake

define malnutrition

failure to achieve nutrient requirements

define food insecurity

limited or uncertain availability of nutrients or food

define food security

access to nutritionally adequate and safe food

what groups are at risk for food malnutrition

working poor, people in food deserts, and older adults

what are ways america is trying to resolve hunger issues

the food stamp program, WIC, national school lunch program, feeding america

what is the largest hunger relief organization in the us

feeding america

what does feeding america do

network of food banks and food rescue organizations that work to affect change in public attitude and laws. educates general public about hunger in america

what things contribute to hunger and malnutriton

soaring food prices, population growth, rapid economic expansion, increased oil prices and biofuels increasing, unpredictability and variability in water supplies, and international relief agencies and government programs

what are protein energy malnutritions

kwashiorkor, marasmus

what do iodine deficiency disorders cause

most common cause of preventable brain damage

what does a vitamin A deficiency cause

leading cause of preventable blindness

what does iron deficiency anemia cause

limits productivity of population