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60 Cards in this Set

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If blood phosphorus levels are elevated, patients may develop
osteodystrophy
Patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure who are treated using peritoneal dialysis may have difficulty controlling their diabetes because
glucose is absorbed from the dialysate
Immediately following renal transplantation, energy needs
are higher than normal
Steroid therapy may result in
glucose intolerance
Most renal calculi are compsed of
calcium oxalate
The most important advice for prenecting kidney stones is to
drink at least 10-12 cups of fluid daily
An example of a food that may increase urinary oxalate levels is
strawberry shortcake
Medication used to reduce serum phosphorus levels should be taken
with meals
Patients with chronic renal failure often needs supplements that contain an active form of
vitamin D
In patients with chronic renal failure, inadequate producation of the hormone erythropoietin causes
anemia
Patients treated with hemodialysis often require supplements containing
water-soluble vitamins
In peritoneal dialysis, the peritoneum serves as the
dialysis membrane
The type of peritoneal dialysis in which the patient receives continuous infusions for 4-6 hours during the day and 8 hours at night is known as
countinuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
Patients treated with peritoneal dialysis have higher dietary protein needs than those treated with hemodialysis because
albumin is lost into the dialysate
Patients treated with peritoneal dialysis have higher dietary protein needs than those treated with hemodialysis because
dextrose is absorbed from the dialysate
For patient with renal failure, the best source of protein are
high-quality proteins
For patients with acute renal failure who do not need dialysis, protein intake should be about
0.6 to 1.0 g/kg body weight
During the oliguric stage of acute renal failure, daily fluid intake should be restricted to
the amount of output plus 500 mL
A gradual, irreversible loss of kidney function is called
chronic renal failure
Before development of end-stage renal disease, nutrtion therapy for patients with crhonic renal failure focuses on
limiting foods that produce toxic metabolic by-products
The National Renal Diet
provides flexible meal planning tools for patients with chronic renal failure
The duration and frequency of hemodialysis for patients with chronic renal failure is usually
3-4 hours, three times per week
Milk intake is restricted in patients who are receiving hemodialysis because it is high in
phosphorus
The overall function of the kidneys is to
maintain chemical hmoeostasis in the body
The individual units that carry out the work if the kidneys car called
nephrons
Nephrotic syndrome causes loss of excessive amounts of
protein
To control hypertension and edema, patients with nephrotic syndrome should restrict thier intake of
sodium
"Hidden" sources of sodium include
softened water
For patients with acute renal failure, sudden weight gains are usually caused by
fluid retention
Retention of excussive amounts of waste products of protein metabolism in the blood is known as
azotemia
Hypogonadism may contribute to malnutrtion and wasting because of
fatigue and inability to prepare food
Some types of antiretroviral therapy are associated with changes in body composition that are
lipdystophy
To minimize risk of incetion with Cryptosporidum, patients with HIV/AIDS should
drink only filtered water or water that has been boiled for one minute
Patients with cancer who undergo radiaiton of thier lower abdomen are likely to experiance
diarreha
Food that may help stimulate food intake in pateints with taste abnormalities include those that are
tart
Patients with AIDS should undergo intital nutrition screening and assessment
as early as possible in the course of the disease
Patients experiencing diarreha may benefit for decreased intakes of
lactose and fat
Patients who are experiencing nausea or vomitting may find it easiest to tolerate
cold foods without odor
Acquired immunodeficieny syndrome (AIDS) is caused by a
retrovirus
Infections that cause the morbidity associated with AIDS are called
opportunistic infections
Nutritional problems assoiciated with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) include
hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus
The centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have defined wasting symdrome as
involuntary lost of > 10% of body weight in 1 month with chronic diarreha, weakness, or fever
Strategies that may help maximize food intake in patients with HIV/AIDS include
eating several small meals and snacks daily
One of the reasons that nutrtion therapy is so important for pateints with HIV/AIDS is that it is an area where
client can be in control of their medical care
In pateints with HIV/AIDS, wasting syndrome is often seen in conjunction with
increases in viral load
Surgical resection of tumors that involves gastrectomy may result in
dumping syndrome
Bone marrow cells and cells lining the gastrointestinal tract are more suseptible than other cells to damage caused by chemotherapy because they
have a rapid turnover rate
Effects of chemotherapy on bone marrow result in
immunosuppression
Side effects of radiation therapy are caused by damage to
healthy cells within the treatemnt range
An allogeneic bone marrow transplant uses bone marrow
collected from a matched healthy donor
Patients who receive bone marrow transplants often require parentral nutrtion. Some oral intake is important to help
maintain the integrity of the small intestine
Patients with immunosuppression who need to follow a low-bacterial diet should avoid
fresh fruits
The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment tool
allows for early detection of patients who have potential or actual nutrtional deficits
The stage of carcinogenesis in which the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the cell undergoes mutation is called
promotion
Dietary factors that may help protect against carcinogenesis include
antioxidants
The chemicals in fruits and vegetables that help prevent cancer are known as
phytochemicals
National Cancer Institute recommendations to help prevent cancer include
eating five or more dialy servings of fruits and vegetables
The syndrome of loss of lean body mass and and body fat stores that occurs in many patients with cancer is called
cachexia
Benefits of adequate dietary intake in patients with cancer include
increased tolerance of therapy
The spread of malignant cells to secondary sites is called
metastasis