• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

190 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
take vitamin with a meal or at least a full glass of water or milk to help increase __
vitamins are __ that are present in the foods we eat
organic substances
perform specific metabolic functions in the body
corbon contining substances that the body must obtain in small amounts to maintain heatlh
vitamins were discovered from __
vitamins mostly come from your __
promote and rgulate chemial reations and processes
vitamins do not provide __ but __ vitamins participate in energy yeilding reactions
energy, water soluble
kind of vitamin that regulates growth and development
fat soluble
type of vitamin that are responsible for the activation of enzymes
B vitamins
synthesizing led to __
vitamin supplements
people eating less than __ calories or don't eat teh recommended number of servings ofrom FGP should take vitamins
you should shoot for __% of the US RDA for vitamins
a megadoes is __x the recommended amount
__ of adults in teh US take vitamins
__ vitamins are considered the antioxidants that prevent or repair damage to cells caused by exposure to free radicals
A, C, E
states that cahrged molecultes from bodily wastes products, toxins, and stresses build up over tiem, damage cells and cause us to age
free radical theory of aging
there are __ essential vitamins
there are __ fat soluble vitamins, they are __
there are __ water soluble vitamins
what is another name for the B1 vitamin
what is another name for the B2 vitamin
what is another name for the B3 vitamin
what is another name for the B6 vitamin
what is another name for the B12 vitamin
cyanocobalamin, cobalamin
what is another name for the B9 vitamin
folic acid
what is another name for the B7 vitamin
what is another name for the B5 vitamin
pantothenic acid
vitamins that dissolve in substances like ether and benzene
fat soluble vitamins
travel through the bloodstream to reach body cells stored msotly in liver and fatty tissues
fat solubule vitamins
all the water soluble vitamins are flushed from teh system via the kidneys except __
__, __, and __ are water solubuel vitamins that can be dangerous if consumed too much
niacin, B6, C
you see deficiancies sooner in __ vitamins that__
water soluble, fat souluble
means adding back nutrients that were lost during food processing. for exmple, B vitamins, lost when wheat is refined, are dded back to white flour
means adding nutrients that weren't present in food to begin with. for example, milk is fortified with vitamin D to help your body absorb milks calcium and phosphorus
bitamin and or mineral that has been added to a produc tin excess of what was originally found in the porduct
vitamin and or mineral has been added to a product that did not have it to start with
type of vitamin A that is preformed and found in animals
vitamin A that is a provitamin found in plants
important in vision, health of cels, growth o, development and reproduction, and cancer prevention
vitamin A
responsible for lsynthesis of fcollagen, hormones, and neurotransmitters, antioxidant, prevents cancer, heart disease and cataracts, helps funtion of immune system
vitamin C
vitamin __, __, and __ are the most abused vitamin supplements
C, E beta carotene
you can recieve all vitamins with a __
balacned diet
keeping cool, in moister proof containers, not cuting foods, keeping the skins/outer layer on, and microwae cooking, steamin, or in a pna with little water are the best ways to __
preserve vitamins
called the sunshine vitamin, calciferol
vitamin D
called tocopherol, tocotrienol
vitamin E
called teh clotting vitamin, phylloquinone
vitamin K
called ascorbic acid
vitamin C
what is the possible 10th water soluble vitamin?
helps with vision, to distinguish light from dar and color, health of teh epithelial cells, esp production of mucous, bone growth, development, and reporduction, cancer prevention, aids immune system, cell differentiation. deficiency problems: vision problems
vitmain A
this vitamin is also caonidered a hormone, responsible for converesion of cels in skin to D
vitamin D
found in food or the sun, fortified milk, fish oils, tuna, salmon
vitamin D
regulates calcium and bone metabolism, regulates calcium and phosphorus absoption, reduces kidney excretion of calcium, regulates deposition of calcium, cancer prevention.
deficiency in this is rickets, osteomalacia, growth retardation
vitamin D
suggested evidence that this vitamin helps lower incidences of heart attacks and cancer
vitamin E
found in plant oils, green vegies, fruits, nuts, seds
vitamin E
an antioxidant that donates electrongs or hydrogen to the electron seking compound to neutralize it, stops cell membrane damage, imporoves absorption of vitamin A and calcium, metabolizes iron, detoxify lead, mercurty, beneze, and carbon tetrcholride, reduces tendnecy of platelets to form clots
vitmain E
a deficiency in this is nerve destruciton, RBC problems
vitamin E
responsible for sysnthesis in teh intestine form baceria and supplied in foods (green vegies, leefy cabbage family, egg yolks, fish oils, liver)
vitamin K
vital for blood clotting, causes inactive blood clotting factors to become active
vitamin K
deficiency in this causes hemorrhage, decrease in bone density
vitamin K
responsible for the synthesis of collagen, helps absoptino or iron, antioxidant, helps form epinepherine, healthy teeth gums, and connective tissue
vitamin C
foundin citrus fruits, strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli, greens, potatoes, and cantaloupe
vitamin C
deficiency in this can cause scurvy
vitamin C
is a coenzyme, growh and maintenance metaboism of glucose
vitamin B1
responsible for energy pordictuion from CFP metabolism, body growth, and RBC production
vitamin B2
a deficiency in this is dreied and cracked skin, sensitivity to light
vitamin B2
responsible for energy production for CR, lowers high cholesterol
vitamin B3
deficiency in this is pellegra
vitamin B3
resonsible for energy metabolism, hormone production
vitamin B5
deficiency in this causes tingling in hands, fatigue, headaches
vitamin B5
responsile for metaboism of PCF, especially protein, nuerotrasnmitter, synthesis of antiboideis
vitamin B6
deficiency in this causes headaches, convulsions, flaky skin, anemia, depression
vitamin B6
resonsible for synthesis of DNA and making of RBC, prevents neural tube defects, foundin green leafy vegies
vitamin B9
deficiency in this is pooor growth, ,graing hair, inflammation of tongue, ulcers, diarrhea, anemia
vitamin B9
responsible for synthesis of DNA, anemia, maintenance of CNS, found in eggs, meat, poultry, shellfish, milk
vitamin B12
deficiency in this causes anemia
vitamin B12
responoisble for energy metabolism, synthesis of hormones and choelsterol
vitamin B7
deficiency in this is dermatisis, hair loss, impaired growth
vitamin B7
helps with fatigue becuase it is involved in muscle contraction
deficiency in thsi is fatty liver and liver damage
chemical elements used in teh body to promote chemical processes and form body structure
inorganic elemets fond in nature
some minerals are __
megadose of minerals is __x the recommended dose
minerals are __ that enable enzymes to work
ability to absorption and use of minerals
mineral bioavailablity
minerals are better absorbed from __ sources
the three minerals that are considered electrolytes
postassium, chloride, sodium
there are __ major minerals
you need __ milligrams a day of major minerals
what are the major minerals
sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur
responsible for fluid balance, nerve impulse conduction, and aid absorption of nutrients like glucose
lack of this causes muscle crmaps and fatigue
responsible for fluid pbalance, nerve impulse conduction
lack of this causes muscle cramps, irregular heartbeat, loss of appetite
responsible for extracellular fluid, component of stomach hydrochloric acid, nerve function
lack of this causes metabolic irregularities, confusion, stupor
responsible for forming and maintainign bones and teeth, blood clotting, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, regulates cellular metabolism
lack of this cuases slow stunted growth, osteoporosis, dowagers ump, bone fracture, tooth loss, muscles cramping
high calcium levles
__% of calcium in teh body is in teh bones
a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue leading to increased bone fragility and fracture risk
__% of americans with osteoporosis are women
regular adults should consume __ cup so fdairy a day for thier calcium intake
children ages 2-8 should have __ cups per day of dairy for calcium intake
a component of enzymes, DNA, all cell membranes and bone (85%)
lack of this causes weakness, muscle loss, bone loss, and pain
responsible for nerve and heart functions, maintenance of bone (60%), cofactor for over 200 enzymes
lack of this causes weakness, confusion, constipation, disturbed heart rate
responsible for structure of some amino acids, acid based balance, food preservation
there are __ trace minerals
you need __ mg a day of trace minerals
the trace minerals are:
iron, zinc, selenium, iodine, copper, fluoride, chromium, manganese, mollybdenum
a component of hemoglobin and myoglobin, oxygen transport, component of enzyems and some proteins, immune function
lack of this couases anemia with weakness, fatigue, reduced learning ability and coordination, slow wound healling and resistance to infection
a condition where there is a lower than normal number of red blood cells in teh blood usually measured by a decrease in teh amount of hemoglobin
is a cofactor for over 300 enzymes, DNA and protein metabolism, immune function, proper bone and sexual organ development, storeage and release of insulin, alcohol metaboism
lack of this causes growth retardation, delayed puberty, loss of taste, weight loss, diarrhea, night blindness, imparied immunity
the only mineral that is an antioxidant
selenium deficiency cuasing deforming arthitis
kashin-beck disease
responsible for teh synthesis of thyroid hormones, promote growth and development
lack of this cuases goiter, colds, weight gain, meantl retardation, deafness
metabolizes iron, cross linking collagen and elastin, cofactor for antioxident enzyems, immune system, blood clotting, blood lipoprotein metabolism
strengthens the structure of bones and teeth
lack of this cuases increased tooth decay, bone fractures
responsible for glucose entry into cells
lack of this causes neurological disorders
is a corfactor of enzymes used in CHO metaboism, bone formation
interacts with iron and copper, cofactor of enzyems
lack of this cuases weakness and confusion
the most abundant mineral in teh body, 99% of bone
bones continue to form and mineralize until age __
you can loose up to 40% of your calicum by age __
porous bones due to loss of minerals from teh bones
disorder taht results from a depletion of iron stores
iron deficiency
condition that results when teh content of hemoglobin in red blood cells is reduced due to a lack of iron
iron deficiency anemia
high blood pressure is __
__% of hypertension has no identifiable cause
__% of americans have HBP
a person is allowed about __ mg of salt a day, athletes caan have __ mg
2300-2400, 4000
preypertension is __
stage 1 hypertension is __
stage 2 hypertension is __
160/100 or higher
__ may induce mineral losses
if a female athlete develops secondary amenorrhea, they ahve an increased need for __
over __ of teh US population uses some form of supplementation and we spend more muney on supplelents that __
1/2, primary care medicine
__ % of americans feel that they do not recieve adequate levels of VM in thier diet
only __% of the population consume five servign of fuits and veggies daily
>__% of americans fails to achieve the RDA levels of VM
chemical substances found in plants
the study of phytochemicals is <__ years old
you do not __ most phytochemicals
__ are not destroyed by cooking like water soluble viatimns
chemical substacnes in animal fods, some of which perform important funcitons in teh human body
reduce risk of heart disease, risk of certain types of cncner, age related muscular degeneration, hypertension, infectious diseases, diabetes, stroke and cataracts
act as a hormone inhibiting subastance taht prevent initiation of cancer
serve as an antioxidant that prevent and repair damage to cells due to oxidation
block or neurtralize enzymes that promote the development of cancer and otehr diseases
decrease formation of blood clots
sulfur containing vegetables whose outer leaves form a cros (crucifix)
cruciferous vegetables
the __ regulates claims in advertisement of supplements
federal trade commission
plant products known to treat disease are considered __
dietary supplements ahve been a concept since the __
birth dietary supplements in congress __
stated that any product intended to supplement thte diet by providing one or more vitains, minerals, herbs or other botanical products or amino acids, and a concentrated source of nutrients that is ususally prescribed to be taken in addition to teh daily diet to increse nutriet intake
dietary supplement heatlh and educatin act (DSHEA)
statements about how a products affects the structure or functin of teh human body example : 'calcium builds strong bones'
allowable claimes
statements thta say a supplement can cure or treat a disease example: 'ginko biloba prevents dementia'
non allowed claim
in __, concgress establiehed an office of dietary supplements within the national institures of health, the primary purpose is to promote scienfii sutdy of dietary supplements
in __ the FDA regulation taht vitamin and mineral supplements must display a "supplement facts" panel that lists service size and amount to be consumed
__ has tested the supplement for igredient availability for absorption, purity, and stregth
US Pharmacopeia
according to DSHEA, teh __ is responsible for ensuring tht a dietary supplement is safe before it is marketed
non essential amino acids used to make urea, proteins, glycogen, and energy
aspartic acid
differ from oteh ramino acids in taht tehy can be used for energy directlyin the muscles
branched chain amino acids
often marketed as an immune system enhancer and to improve brain function
energy drinks are intentionally marketed to people under __
__ mg of caffine a day is moderate dons
over __ mg of caffine a day is moderate dose
over __ mg of carrine is a large does
__ mg of caffine is banned from teh olympics
member of buttercup family, used recently to treat postmenopausal symtoms
black cohosh
products used to prevent or treat uriniary tract infecitons
believed to strengthen the immune system
associated with decreases in cholesterol an dability to help control blood pressure. has been shown to have potential anticancer effects
used for teh treatment of various condicions including memory and conentration problesm
ginkogo biloba
commonly sould to improve overall heatlh and immune systemem
best known as an aphrodisiac
used to treat mild to moderate depression anxiety and sleep disorders
st. johns wort
used a amild sedative and sleeping agent
used for reief ofnausea, vomiting, and motion sickness