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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is pellagra and what are the symptoms?
•a Niacin deficiency disease; caused by the diet, not an infection
•Symptoms- 4D’s- diarrhea, dermatitis (skin darkens & flakes away), dementia, death
What are the characteristics of niacin?
•Niacin (B vitamin)- 2 chemical structures:
• Nicotinic acid- Can convert to nicotinamide
• Nicotinamide- Major form of niacin in blood
• Niacin (B vitamin)- 2 coenzyme forms – metabolic reactions
• Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)- Carries hydrogens and their electrons to ETC
• NADP (the phosphate form)- Niacin attaches to phosphates, mainly participates in metabolic reactions
What is a niacin flush?
a temporary burning, tingling and itching sensation that occurs when a person takes a large dose (megadose) of nicotinic acid; often accompanied by a headache and reddened face, arms and chest, dilation of vessels
Why do B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy?
Without certain substances (ex: NAD) the enzymes involved in every step of the glucose-to-energy pathway cannot function to produce energy
Functions of vitamin K, when are supplements given?
• Acts primarily in blood clotting Activating Prothrombin
• Metabolism of bone proteinsOsteocalcin (Without Vitamin K, osteocalcin cannot bind to the minerals that normally form bones resulting in low bone density)
• Protects against fractures and helps to decrease bone turnover
• Supplements are given at birth to newborns because their GI tract is sterile and hasn’t begun producing its own Vitamin K
What are the characteristics of fat-soluble and water soluble vitamins?
• Fat-soluble: Require bile for digestion and absorption, travel through lymphatic system, many require transport proteins in bloodstream, *excesses are stored in the liver & adipose tissue, risk of toxicity is greater, needed in periodic doses
• Water-soluble: Move directly into blood, most travel freely, kidneys detect & remove excess in urine, possible to reach toxic levels when consumed from supplements, needed in frequent doses
What is a precursor?
Substances that precede others; with regard to vitamins, compounds that can be converted into active vitamins; also known as provitamins.
What protein binds with biotin preventing absorption?
Protein avidin in egg whites
What does vitamin B12 and folate have in common?
• Vitamin B12 & Folate depend on each other for activation
• Vitamin B12 removes a methyl group to activate the folate coenzyme; when folate gives up its methyl group, the Vitamin B12 coenzyme becomes activated
• Regeneration of the amino acid methionine and the synthesis of DNA and RNA depend on both folate and vitamin B12
Which vitamin can help prevent neural tube defects?
Folate supplements taken one month before conception and continued throughout the first trimester of pregnancy can help prevent neural tube defects
What usually causes Vitamin B12 deficiency? What individuals are susceptible to deficiency?
• Deficiency is usually because of inadequate absorption, not inadequate intake. This occurs typically because there is a lack of hydrochloric acid or a lack of intrinsic factor
• Elderly are susceptible to deficiency and prolonged inadequate intake occurs with a vegan diet
What are the properties of vitamin b12? How is B12 absorbed?
• Properties of Vitamin B12:
• Maintains sheath around nerve fibers and promotes their normal growth
• Involved in bone cell activity
• Involved in metabolism
• Removes a methyl group to activate the folate coenzyme
• Regeneration of methionine, synthesis of DNA, and synthesis of RNA (like folate)
• In the stomach, hydrochloric acid and pepsin release B12 from the proteins to which it is attached in foods, then in the small intestine B12 binds with intrinsic factor and travels to the end of the small intestine. Receptors don’t recognize B12 without the intrinsic factor, vitamin is gradually absorbed into bloodstream as intrinsic factor is degraded
Which vitamin causes cracking and redness of the corners of the mouth?
B Vitamins
What causes keratinization?
• Vitamin A deficiency
• Goblet cells in the GI tract diminish in number and activity, limiting the secretion of mucus; normal digestion and absorption of nutrients from GI tract falters
Pernicious anemia
type of anemia seen with a B12 deficiency; usually caused by atrophic gastritis (chronic inflammation of the stomach) and a lack of intrinsic factor. Characterized by abnormally large and immature red blood cells. Other symptoms include muscle weakness and irreversible neurological damage.
•a Thiamin deficiency disease
• Dry: reflects damage to the nervous system and is characterized by muscle weakness in the arms & legs
• Wet: reflects damage to the cardiovascular system and is characterized by dilated blood vessels, which cause the heart to work harder and the kidneys to retain salt and water, resulting in edema.
• Usually both occur together with one set of symptoms predominating.
Best sources of vitamin D
• Vitamin-D fortified milk, oily fish (salmon, mackerel, and sardines), egg yolks
• Natural exposure to sunlight
Main function of vitamin E
• Main function: Antioxidant; One of the body’s primary defenders against the adverse effects of free radicals.
• Stop the chain reaction of free radicals producing more free radicals. Protects the vulnerable components of the cells & their membrane from destruction.
• Prevents the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids but it protects other lipids and related compounds
• Reduces the risk of heart disease by protecting low density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation & reducing inflammation
What foods are high in folate?
Fortified grains, leafy green vegetables, legumes, seeds, liver
Symptoms of B6 deficiency?
•Scaly dermatitis, anemia (small-cell type), depression, confusion; advanced symptoms: abnormal brain wave patterns, convulsions
Symptoms of Vitamin D deficiency?
• don’t see any major physical signs but insufficiency is common; Rickets in children, osteomalacia (bone disease), osteoporosis (loss of calcium from the bones), bone losses, fractures, misshapen of bones, enlargement of ends of long bones, deformities of the ribs, delayed closing of fontanel resulting in rapid enlargement of the head, muscle spasms, loss of calcium, brittle bones & progressive weakness, pain in pelvis, lower back & legs
Symptoms of Vitamin E deficiency?
• Rare; erythrocyte hemolysis, seen in premature infants born before the transfer of vitamin E from the mother to the infant. Erythrocyte hemolysis- breaking open of RBC’s/red blood cell breakage. Also, nerve damage.
What are the functions of Vitamin C?
• Antioxidant- Defends against free radicals*
• Vitamin C loses electrons easily and neutralizes free radicals to prevent damage
• Vitamin C recycling
• Protects tissues from oxidative stress (burn victims need more Vitamin C)
• Disease prevention (Cancer, heart disease, cataract)
• Enhances iron absorption
• Cofactor in collagen formation
• Matrix for bone and tooth formation
• Conversion of proline to hydroxyproline
• Cofactor in other reactions
• Hydroxylation of carnitine
• Conversion of tryptophan to serotonin
• Conversion of tyrosine to norepinephrine
• Making hormones (particularly thyroxine- which regulates BMR)
What are the functions of Vitamin A?
• Vision
• Participating in protein synthesis and cell differentiation
• Maintaining health of epithelial cells & skin
• Supporting reproduction and growth
• Regulation of gene expression (Ex: Retinoic acid works very similar to a hormone)
• Beta-carotene (Vitamin A precursor) acts as an antioxidant
What transports vitamin A?
Retinol-binding protein (RBP) transports Vitamin A from the liver to the blood
What substance can be converted to vitamin A?
What deficiency might be present with a low protein diet?
• Protein deficiencies usually shows that there isn’t good absorption of vitamin A
• Niacin production only occurs after protein synthesis needs have been met (protein deficient can’t convert tryptophanniacin)
• An inactive protein
• Activated by Vitamin K
• Important in the blood-clotting process
Which vitamin can be synthesized by intestinal bacteria?
Vitamin K
• Becoming smaller with regards to muscle, a decrease in size and strength due to: disuse, undernutrition, or wasting diseases
• Growing larger with regards to muscle, an increase in size and strength in response to use
How can athletes build muscle?
• Resistance training to build muscle mass
Predominant fuel used by muscles cells during low or moderate intense exercise?
ATP from fat
How can you raise muscle glycogen concentrations?
• High carb diet (8 grams per kilogram of body weight)
• Take in some glucose after exercise (first 15 minutes intake) and within 2 hours a meal
• Training encourages glycogen storage
Which diet showed to be the most beneficial for physical performance in athletes?
• High carb- 70%
What is “hitting the wall”?
• Depletion of glycogen stores in the liver and muscles, results in sudden fatigue and loss of energy
Best diet before, during and after exercise
• Before
o 1 oz. of fluid for 10 pounds of body weight 4 hours prior
o Pre-exercise meal high carb foods- closer to race easier to drink them
o Pre-carbohydrate loading a couple days before
• During
o Mixture of carbs for best absorption
o Fluid replacement- if using sports drink, the carb in the drink helps you to absorb the drink and hold onto fluid
o Beverages between 4-8% carb are tolerated better during activity
o When running or exercising/endurance events g 30-80g carbs per hour
• After
o Fluids- 2 cups for each pound of body weight lost
What is sport anemia?
• Strenuous activity promotes destruction of old RBC, resulting clean up work results in blood iron content going down, bloods plasma volume increase which dilutes iron
• Low blood hemoglobin
Guidelines for replenishing fluid
• Person must rehydrate before and after activity
• For endurance athletes- If drinking a sports drink, the carbs in the drink will help you absorb the fluid better
• 3(2) cups for each pound lost
• 2- 3 hours before activity: 2-3 cups
• 15 minutes before activity: 1-2 cups
• Every 15 minutes during activity: 1/2 -1 cup
• After activity: 2 cups per pound lost
Benefits of carbohydrate loading. Recommendations? Disadvantages?
• Extra glycogen gained through carb loading can benefit and athlete who must keep going for 90 minutes or longer
• Watch fat and protein intake so calories don’t get so high
• Don’t have to do it as many days in advance as they once thought because it can cause uncomfortable bloating
• Reccomendations:
o 4-5 days and 6 days of moderate training- 5 g/kg body weight
o 2-3 days of moderate training- high carb 10 g/kg body weight
o 1 day rest- high carb 10 g/kg body weight
• For every gram of carb that you load you retain 3 grams of water- high endurance extra weight in water can be good
Hyponatremia, causes and prevention
• Fluid replacement concern
• Low sodium levels in the blood -common in women, bloating, nausea, headache, disorientation, agitation
• Causes: athletes sweating profusely over a long period of time and do not replace lost sodium, overhydrating can also dilute body fluids so much that sodium content falls
• Risk factors: a lot of water without electrolytes or some product without electrolytes, low body weight, excessive drinking of water, run at slower pace risk increases tremendously (longer than 4 hours), females because smaller and easier to dehydrate.
• Prevention: be ready and prepared, salting your food 2-3 days before, sports drinks 2-3 days before to hydrate and electrolyte provision, potassium to prevent cramping (bananas, avocados, yogurt, milk), magnesium, calcium
Goal of protein for recovery
• Protein synthesis is accelerated in the hours of recovery following an activity
• Eating high quality protein, either alone or with carbs, enhances this muscle protein synthesis
Recommendations for caffeine consumption
• 1-3 milligrams per kilogram that is taken 30min to an hour before event
• Too much is GI distress and increase of nervousness
Benefits of sports drinks
• Offer: fluids, glucose, sodium and other electrolytes, good taste
Recommended protein intake for endurance and strength athletes?
• Endurance
o 1.2-1.4 g/kg/day
o Males: 84-98 g/day
o Females: 66-77 g/day
• Strength
o 1.2-1.7 g/kg/day
o Males: 84-119 g/day
o Females: 66-94 g/day