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68 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are erythrocytes?
red blood cells
What is the name for red blood cells?
What are leukocytes?
White blood cells
What is the name for white blood cells?
What are platelets?
Cell fragments that assist in blood clotting
What is the name for the cell fragments that assist in blood clotting?
What is the name of the fluid portion of the blood that maintains adequate blood volume?
What percentage of blood is composed of plasma?
What percentage of blood is composed of red blood cells?
What percentage of blood is composed of platelets and white blood cells?
Less than 1%
What are the nutrients that maintain healthy blood?
Iron, Zinc, Copper, Vitamin K, Folate, Vitamin B12
What are the electron carriers within the metabolic pathways for energy production from carbs, fats, and protein?
What are the two oxygen-carrying molecules that iron is used in?
Myoglobin and Hemoglobin
Where is myoglobin found?
What kind of iron is NOT a part of hemoglobin and myoglobin?
Non-heme iron
What is the name of the iron transport protein in blood?
What does transferrin do?
Transport iron in the blood
What group of people require the highest RDA of iron?
Pregnant women
What is the most common cause of poisoning deaths in children?
Accidental iron overdose
What is hemachromatosis?
Excessive absorption of dietary iron and altered iron storage
What vitamin should be avoided when a person has hemachromatosis?
Vitamin C
What is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world?
Iron deficiency
Which is more severe: erythropoeisis, or anemia?
Intake of what nutrients inhibit zinc absorption?
High amounts of non-heme iron,
Phytates and fiber in whole grains and beans
What dietary factor enhances zinc absorption?
Animal-based proteins
High intake of zinc increases concentrations of what lipoprotein?
High density
What enzyme system is copper a part of?
Superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzyme system
Intake of what impairs copper absorption?
High intake of zinc and iron
Wilson disease, with symptoms of liver damage, appears in toxicity of what nutrient?
What nutrient acts as a coenzyme for assisting in synthesizing blood coagulating proteins?
Vitamin K
What nutrient assists prothrombin and procoagulants?
Vitamin K
What is found in green leafy vegetables and soybean and canola oils?
Vitamin K
What vitamin are newborns given injections of at birth?
Vitamin K
Functions: DNA Synthesis, amino acid metabolism, cellular division and differentiation, interrelated with B12 and B6 in some metabolic functions
Is folate's bioavailability better from supplements or from food?
What are the typical 4 stages of deficiency?
Negative Balance (1)
Depletion (2)
Deficiency Erythropoiesis (3)
Deficiency Anemia (4)
Toxicity of folate can mask what?
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Macrocytic anemia, elevated homocysteine levels, and neural tube defects result from deficiency of what?
What vitamin maintains the myelin sheath of nerve fibers?
Vitamin B12
What does B12 require for intestinal absorption?
Acidic environment and intrinsic factor
Where can B12 be stored?
The liver
What vitamin are vegans especially susceptible to deficiency of?
What two nutrients are required for breakdown of the amino acid homocysteine?
Folate and Vitamin B12
Folate and Vitamin B12 are required for the breakdown of what amino acid?
What is the definition of anemia?
Low hemoglobin
What genetic problems cause anemia?
Sickle cell anemia and thalassemia
Microcytic anemia is caused by what deficiency?
iron or vitamin B6
Macrocytic anemia is caused by what deficiency?
vitamin B12 or folate
Pernicious anemia is caused by what deficiency?
vitamin B12
What are the nonspecific defenses?
Skin and mucous membranes, and stomach acid
Macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells are example of what kind of immune cells?
Nonspecific immune cells
What is the specific immune system directed against?
Recognized antigens
What does the specific immune system induce to destroy an invader?
What are the two main types of specific immune system cells?
B cells and T cells
What are 4 ways to acquire specific immunity?
Contract a disease once, vaccinations, maternal antibodies, and antiserum injections
Malfunction of the immune system causes what?
Chronic inflammation and infection
A sensitive indicator of reduced nutritional status is a decrease of what?
What are the signaling molecules that essential fatty acids are precursors for?
Which fatty acids promote inflammatory response to help contain infection?
Omega-6 fatty acids
Which fatty acids diminish inflammation in blood vessels to prevent heart disease?
Omega-3 fatty acids
Which vitamin maintains mucosal surface?
Vitamin A
Which vitamins protect cell membranes from reactive oxygen species (ROS)?
Vitamins C and E
What nutrient assists immune cell gene expression and enzyme activation (B and T cell proliferation)?
Which nutrient is a growth factor for immune cells?
Which nutrient impairs immune function when deficient?
Which nutrient is a coenzyme for glutathione peroxidase?
Which nutrient promotes B and T cell proliferation and antibody production?
Which nutrient can impair immunity in excessive amounts?