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88 Cards in this Set

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What sphincter separates the stomach from the small intestine?



a. cardiac sphincter


b. ileocecal valve


c. pyloric spincter


d. anal spincter

c. pyloric spincter

Long chain fatty acids move through the villi of the small intestine and are first picked up by the _____.



a. liver


b. bloodstream


c. lymphatic system


d. adipose tissue

c. lymphatic system

The end products of carbohydrate anabolism is(are):



a. new cells/tissues


b. glycogen


c. glucose


d. carbon dioxide

b. glycogen

You have just consumed a high fat meal. Hormonal messages will first target a specific organ to secrete:



a. hydrochloric acid


b. lipase


c. mucus


d. bile

d. bile

The catabolic products of protein metabolism include:



a. glycogen


b. new cells and tissues


c. nitrogen


d. fatty acids

c. nitrogen

In addition to the digestion of protein, what other function does the stomach serve?



a. production of gastric amylase


b. production of bile


c. production of intrinsic factor


d. synthesis of vitamin B-12

c. production of the intrinsic factor

The chemical digestion of oatmeal would begin in the:



a. mouth


b. esophagus


c. stomach


d. duodenum

a. mouth

For a given nutrient, why might AI, rather than an RDA, be established?



a. An AI applies to vitamins and an RDA applies to minerals.


b. There is insufficient data for the establishment of a DRI.


c. There is insufficient data for the establishment of an RDA.


d. There is a high enough degree of confidence in the available data to establish an AI.

c. There is insufficient data for the establishment of an RDA.

There are _____ food groups in the USDA Food Patterns.



a. 6


b. 5


c. 8


d. 7

b. 5

Based on DRI reommendations for the consumption of saturated fat, ________ grams is the maximum allowable saturated fat intake for a 2,000-calorie diet.



a. 10


b. 25


c. 20


d. 30

c. 20

Which of the following food sources doesn't provide the phytochemical group of carotenoids?



a. apricots


b. hot peppers


c. broccoli


d. spinach


e. pumpkin

b. hot peppers

What is the health impact of consuming a diet high in antioxidants?



a. Antioxidants protect cell constituents from damage.


b. Antioxidants increase the risk of heart disease.


c. Antioxidants increase the risk of dementia.


d. Antioxidants increase the risk of cancer.

a. Antioxidants protect cell constituents from damage.

Which of the following is not one of the four lists of values for measuring nutrient intakes included in the DRI?



a. UL


b. AMDR


c. RDA


d. AI

b. AMDR

Why are Daily Values used on food labels?



a. They allow individuals to determine how closely a particular food item meets their needs for specific nutrients.


b. They allow for a comparison of the nutrient content of different foods.


c. They allow food labels to display the most up-to-date recommendations for a specific set of nutrients.


d. They are used to confuse the public into purchasing items that they might not otherwise purchase.

b. They allow for a comparison of the nutrient content of different foods.

True or False?


To have an adequate intake of vegetables, one has to eat the recommended amounts from each vegetable subgroup every day.

False

True or False?


When using the MyPlate guide to understanding the USDA Food Patterns, at least half of your plate should be made up of vegetables and fruit.

True

True or False?


The USDA Food Patterns are inflexible and work best when planning an "American-style" diet.

False

For a food to be a "good source" of a nutrient, it must contain _______ of the Daily Value for that nutrient per serving.



a. between 5% and 10%


b. more than 25%


c. between 10% and 19%


d. up to 5%

c. between 10% and 19%

Which of the following DRI values addresses the issue of adequacy?



a. AI


b. AMDR


c. EAR


d. UL

a. AI

Food labels must state the contents of which of these nutrients expressed as a percentage of the Daily Values?



a. iron


b. vitamin D


c. phosphorus


d. folate

a. iron

All of the following are correct about phytochemicals EXCEPT:



a. A regulatory body oversees the safety of phytochemicals sold to consumers.


b. phytochemical labels may make unsubstantiated claims about contributing to the body's functioning, even though research supporting those claims is lacking.


c. phytochemicals can alter body functions.


d. evidence for safety of isolated phytochemicals in human beings is lacking.

a. a regulatory body oversees the safety of phytochemicals sold to consumers.

All of the following are correct concerning the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values EXCEPT:



a. the committee that determines the values is composed of scientists.


b. the values are minimum recommendations for virtually all healthy people.


c. the values reflect daily intakes to be achieved, on average, over time.


d. the values are updated periodically in light of new knowledge.

b. the values are minimum recommendations for virtually all healthy people.

In the USDA Food Patterns, soybeans & legumes are included within which food group?



a. both vegetables and protein foods


b. grains


c. vegetables


d. protein foods


e. milk and milk products

a. both vegetables and protein foods

Which of the following statements about phytochemicals is incorrect?



a. They may support health in ways beyond the traditional roles of nutrients.


b. They are nonnutrients.


c. Foods, not supplements, are the best and safest source of these substances.


d. They are found in all foods.

d. They are found in all foods.

Tuppence is a 35-year-old vegetarian who has been consuming less than her RDA for zinc for years. Nonetheless, she hasn't developed any symptoms of a zinc deficiency. What is the most likely explanation for this?



a. The RDA are designed to meet the needs of people eating regular diets, not vegetarians.


b. People's nutrient needs vary widely, so Tuppence might need less zinc than the RDA.


c. Tuppence may not be meeting the RDA for zinc, but she could be getting enough because she meets the UL.


d. The RDA is set too high.

b. People's nutrient needs vary widely, so Tuppence might need less zinc than the RDA.

Which of the following statements regarding structure-function claims is incorrect?



a. Structure-function claims must be approved by the FDA before being printed on a product label.


b. Structure-function claims describe the effect a substance has on the structure of the body and does not make reference to a disease.


c. A label disclaimer must accompany a structure-function claim.


d. Structure-function claims are less reliable than health claims.

a. Structure-function claims must be approved by the FDA before being printed on a product label.

All of the following are correct about yogurt EXCEPT:



a. it may protect against colon cancer.


b. it contains living bacteria.


c. it contains lutein and lycopene.


d. it may improve diarrhea from antibiotic use.

c. it contains lutein and lycopene.

Eating more of which food is a sure way to consume more phytochemicals?



a. cheese


b. bread


c. fruit


d. lean fish

c. fruit

Which of the following foods is NOT a soybean-related food?



a. tofu


b. yogurt


c. soy drink


d. miso

b. yogurt

Which of the following would be considered discretionary calories?



a. calories from the sugar in a fresh strawberry


b. calories from the sugar in a frosted shredded wheat cereal


c. calories from the fat in a salmon fillet


d. calories from the fat in a handful of dry-roasted almonds


b. calories from the sugar in a frosted shredded wheat cereal

Which of the following statements about portion sizes is true?



a. Portion sizes aren't important to Americans today because food is so plentiful.


b. A 3-oz. portion of meat is about the size of a paperback novel.


c. A soup spoon is a good substitute for a tablespoon when measuring a portion of food.


d. A hamburger served in a fast-food restaurant today may be 3 times the size of a hamburger served in the same restaurant in 1970.

d. A hamburger served in a fast-food restaurant today may be 3 times the size of a hamburger served in the same restaurant in 1970.

A major guideline for healthy people is to keep fat intake within the range of _________ % of total calories.



a. 20-35


b. 10-20


c. 20-30


d. 15-25

a. 20-35

The key nutrients of concern in the U.S. diet include all of the following, EXCEPT:



a. calcium


b. fiber


c. sodium


d. potassium

c. sodium

Which of the following equals one ounce of the grains group?



a. 1 cup cooked rice


b. 1 cup cooked pasta


c. 1/2 cup ready-to-eat cereal


d. 1 slice bread

d. 1 slice bread

Which of the following does NOT equal to 1/2 cup from the fruits group?



a. 1/2 cup fruit juice


b. 1 medium fruit


c. 1/2 cup canned fruit


d. 1/2 cup dried fruit

d. 1/2 cup dried fruit

The USDA's Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends _______ of moderate activity for good health.



a. 30 minutes per day


b. 60 minutes per day


c. 15 hours per month


d. 2.5 hours per week

d. 2.5 hours per week

Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of the DRI Committee?



a. Preventing chronic diseases


b. Helping consumers use the USDA Food Guide to plan a diet


c. Facilitating nutrition research and policy


d. Establishing safety guidelines

b. Helping consumers use the USDA Food Guide to plan a diet

Which of the following is NOT required by law to be listed on a food label?



a. The common name of the product


b. The ingredients of the product


c. The name and address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor


d. The Internet address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor

d. The Internet address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor

For vegetables and protein foods, intakes should be divided among all the subgroups __________.



a. over a week's time


b. at snack times only


c. at every meal


d. each day

a. over a week's time

According to the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR), what percentage of total calories should come from carbohydrates?



a. 20-35%


b. It depends on the type of carbohydrate.


c. 10-35%


d. 45-65%

d. 45-65%

Which of the following individuals is likely to have the largest discretionary calorie allowance?



a. An obese male accountant who dislikes exercise.


b. A healthy, sedentary female college student.


c. A pregnant woman who takes a short walk 2-3 times a week.


d. A male professional athlete who works out for several hours a day.

d. A male professional athlete who works out for several hours a day.

The nutrient standards in use today include all of the following except _________.



a. Adequate Intakes (AI)


b. Daily Minimum Requirements (DMR)


c. Daily Values (DV)


d. a and c

b. Daily Minimum Requirements (DMR)

The Dietary Reference Intakes were devised for which of the following purposes?



a. to set nutrient goals for individuals


b. to suggests upper limits of intakes, above which toxicity is likely


c. to set average nutrient requirements for use in research.


d. all of the above

d. all of the above

True or False?


The energy intake recommendation is set at a level predicted to maintain body weight.

True

True or False?


The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are for all people, regardless of their medical history.

False



(The DRI are estimates of the needs of healthy persons only. Medical problems alter nutrient needs.)

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans include all of these major topic areas, except:



a. Balance calories to manage a healthy body weight.


b. Increase intakes of certain nutrient-dense foods.


c. Reduce intakes of artificial ingredients.


d. Reduce intakes of certain foods and food components.

c. Reduce intakes of artificial ingredients.

True or False?


The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend physical activity to help balance calorie intakes to achieve and sustain a healthy body weight.

True

According to the USDA Food Patterns, which of the following vegetables should be limited?



a. carrots


b. avocados


c. baked beans


d. potatoes

c. baked beans

The USDA Food Patterns recommend a small amount of daily oil from which of these sources?



a. olives


b. nuts


c. vegetable oil


d. all of the above

d. all of the above

True or False?


People who choose not to eat meat or animal products need to find an alternative to the USDA Food Patterns when planning their diets.

False

To plan a healthy diet that correctly assigns the needed amounts of food from each food group, the diet planner should start by consulting:



a. USDA Food Patterns


b. Dietary Reference Intakes


c. sample menus


d. none of the above

a. USDA Food Patterns

Which of the following values is found on food labels?



a. Recommended Dietary Allowances


b. Dietary Reference Intakes


c. Daily Values


d. Estimated Average Requirements

c. Daily Values

True or False?


By law, food labels must state as a percentage of the Daily Values the amounts of vitamin C, vitamin A, niacin, and thiamin present in food.

False



(vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron)

True or False?


To be labeled "low-fat," a food must contain 3 grams of fat or less per serving.

True

True or False?


One way to evaluate any eating pattern is to compare the total food amounts that it provides with those recommended by the USDA Food Patterns.

True

A carefully planned diet has which of these characteristics?



a. It contains sufficient raw oil.


b. It contains no solid fats or added sugars.


c. It contains all o the vegetable subgroups.


d. a and c

d. a and c

True or False?


Various whole foods contain so many different phytochemicals that consumers should focus on eating a wide variety of foods instead of seeking out a particular phytochemical.

True

True or False?


As natural constituents of foods, phytochemicals are safe to consume in large amounts.

False



(Phytochemicals haven't been proven safe to consume in large amounts)

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI): A set of 5 lists of values for measuring the nutrient intakes of healthy people in the U.S. and Canada.



1)


2)


3)


4)


5)

1) Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)


2) Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)


3) Adequate Intakes (AI)


4) Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)


5) Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)

Daily Values: Another set of nutrient standards that is practical for the person striving to make wise choices among ___________.


- On food labels.

packaged foods

Most people only need to focus on two kinds of DRI values:


1) Those that ___________ for nutrient intakes. (RDA, AI, and AMDR)


2) Those that describe ________________. (UL)

set goals



nutrient safety

DRI sets of values:


1) Recommended Daily Allowances - ________


2) Adequate Intakes - _________


3) Tolerable Upper Intake Levels - ______


4) Estimated Average Requirements - ______


5) Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges - ________

1) Adequacy


2) Adequacy


3) Safety


4) Research & Policy


5) Healthful ranges for energy-yielding nutrients

Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA):

- Nutrient intake goals for individuals.


- The average daily nutrient intake level that meets the needs of nearly all (97-98%) healthy people in a particular life stage and gender group.


- Derived from the Estimated Average Requirements.

Adequate Intakes (AI):

- Nutrient intake goals for individuals.


- The recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on intakes of healthy people (observed or experimentally derived) in a particular stage and gender group and assumed to be adequate.


- Set whenever scientific data are insufficient to allow establishment of an RDA value.

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL):

- The highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of toxicity to almost all healthy individuals of a particular life stage and gender group.


- Usual intake above this level may place an individual at risk of illness from nutrient toxicity.

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR):

- Values for carbohydrate, fat, and protein expressed as percentages of total caloric intake.


- Ranges of intakes set for the energy-yielding nutrients that are sufficient to provide adequate total energy and nutrients while minimizing the risk of chronic disease.

Estimated Average Requirements (EAR):

- Establishes the average nutrient requirements for given life stages and gender groups that researchers and nutrition policy makers use in their work.


- Public health officials may also use them to assess nutrient intakes of populations and make recommendations.


- The EAR values form the scientific basis upon which the RDA values are set.


- (The mean for that graph to set the requirement value.)

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL):

- Because it is unwise to consume large amounts of any nutrient, the DRI committee sets these levels to identify potentially toxic levels of nutrient intake.


- Usual intakes of a nutrient below this level have a low risk of causing illness.


- Nutrient needs fall within a range, and a danger zone exists both below and above that range.

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR):

- Healthy ranges of intake for carbohydrate, fat, and protein.


- A diet that provides adequate energy in the following proportions can provide adequate nutrients while minimizing the risk of chronic diseases:


45-65% of calories from carbs


20-35% of calories from fat


10-35% of calories from protein

Balance study:



Balance studies are only valid for nutrients like __________.



For each individual subject, we can determine a _________ to achieve balance for the nutrient.



With an intake below the requirement, a person will slip into negative balance or experience declining stores that could, over time, lead to deficiency of the nutrient.

A laboratory study in which a person is fed a controlled diet and the intake and excretion of an nutrient are measured.



calcium (chemical elements) that do not change while they are in the body.



requirement

Estimated Energy Requirements (EER):

- The value set for energy


- Not generous; set at a level predicted to maintain body weight for an individual of a particular age, gender, height, weight, & physical activity level consistent with good health.

The Daily Values are based on an _________ person: an individual eating 2,000-2,500 calories a day.



Unlike the DRI values, the Daily Values remain ________.



The Daily Values are ideal for allowing comparisons among ________, but they can't serve as nutrient intake goals for individuals.

average



static



foods

The key recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 fall into 4 major topic areas:



1)


2)


3)


4)

1) Balance calories to manage a healthy body weight.


2) Increase intakes of certain nutrient-dense foods.


3) Reduce intakes of certain foods and food components.


4) Build a healthy eating pattern

Solid fats are:



Some common solid fats:

fats that are high in saturated fat and usually not liquid at room temperature.



butter, beef fat, chicken fat, pork fat, stick margarine, coconut oil, palm oil, shortening

Food group plan:

A diet-planning tool that sorts foods into groups based on their nutrient content and then specifies that people should eat certain minimum numbers of servings of foods from each group.

Vegetable subgroups:


- The Food Patterns sort vegetables into subgroups by their nutrient contents because not every vegetable supplies every key nutrient attributed to the vegetables group.


- All vegetables provide valuable __________ and the mineral __________, but many from the "red and orange vegetables" subgroup are known for their ___________ content; Those from the "dark green vegetables" provide a wealth of ________; "starchy vegetables" provide abundant ___________; "Legumes" supply substantial ________ and _________.

fiber; potassium


vitamin A


folate


carbohydrate


iron; protein

Protein subgroups:


- All protein foods dependably supply ______ and _______, but their fats vary widely.


- "Meats" tend to be higher in _____________ that should be limited.


- "Seafood" and "nuts, seeds, and soy" foods tend to be low in __________, while providing essential fats that the body requires.

iron; protein


saturated fats


saturated fats

Grains subgroups and other foods:


- Among the grains, the foods of the whole grains subgroup supply _________ and a wide variety of nutrients.


- Refined grains lack many of these beneficial compounds but provide _________.


- The Food Patterns suggest that at least half of the grains in a day's meals be ________ grains, or that at least ____ servings of whole-grain foods be included in the diet each day.

fiber


abundant energy


whole; 3

*Unprocessed or lightly processed foods are generally best because:


- Many processes strip foods of beneficial nutrients and fiber.


- Others add salt, sugar, or fat.

fdfdfd

nutrient density:________________________________



A nutrient-dense food provides vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial substances with relatively few calories.



Uncooked (raw ____ is worth notice in this regard. Oil is pure calorie-rich fat and is therefore low in nutrient density, but a small amount of raw oil from sources such as _______________ , or even raw vegetable oil provides vitamin E and essential lipids that other foods lack.

A measure of nutrients provided per calorie of food.



oil; avocado, olives, nuts, and fish

Solid fats deliver _______ and ________.


Solid fats include:



Sugars in all their forms deliver __________.


Added sugars include:

saturated fat; trans fat


- Naturally occurring fats (milk and meat fats)


- Added fats (butter, cream cheese, hard margarine, lard, sour cream, and shortening)



carbohydrate calories


- All caloric sweeteners (brown sugar, candy, honey, jelly, molasses, soft drinks, sugar, syrups)

A person's discretionary calorie allowance: The difference between the_____________ and those needed to ______________ from the most nutrient-dense foods.


The concept of "discretionary calorie allowance" can be useful to those who _________________.

calories needed to maintain weight; supply nutrients



must limit calorie intakes to prevent excessive weight gain.

exchange system:


- Originally developed for use by people with _________.


- Can be useful to anyone wishing to _________.


- Lists estimated grams of ____________, __________, ___________, __________ in standardized food portions, as well as their caloric values.

diabetes


control calories



carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, protein

By law, a food's label must include:



1)


2)


3)


4)


5)


6)


7)

1) The common or usual name of the product.


2) The name & address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor.


3) The net contents in terms of weight, measure, or count.


4) Nutrition Facts panel (the nutrient contents).


5) The ingredients in descending order of predominance by weight and in ordinary language.


6) Essential warnings (allergies, etc.)


7) State the contents of these nutrients expressed as % of the Daily Values: vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron.

nutrient claims: Claims using __________ wording to describe the nutrient values of foods, such as the claim that a food is "high" in a desirable constituent, or "low" in an undesirable one.



These claims are based on the ____________.

approved



Daily Values

qualified claims: The FDA also allows other similar-sounding health claims that are backed by ________________. Labels bearing them must also state the strength of the scientific evidence backing them up.

weaker evidence


structure-function claims: Even less reliable than _________ claims.



A consumer is ______ likely to encounter this kind of claim on a food label than the more regulated health claims (qualified & nutrient claims).



- For the food manufacturer, printing a health claim involves a time-consuming and expensive process. Instead, the manufacturer can easily print a similar-looking strucutre-function calim that requires only FDA ____________ and no prior approval.



- A ____________ (often printed in tiny, easily missed type) must accompany a strucutre-function claim.


qualified



much more



notification



label disclaimer


Food portions:



3 oz. meat = _____________


1 medium potato/piece of fruit = ____________


1.5 oz. cheese = ________________


1 oz. lunch meat/cheese = ______________


1 cup cooked pasta = _________________


Scoop of ice cream = __________________

the size of the palm of a woman's hand/deck of cards



the size of a tennis ball



the size of a 9-volt battery



1 slice



the size of a baseball



about the size of a golf ball