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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Provides the body with its major source of energy
Carbohydrates are composed of
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
The hydrogen/oxygen ratio of carbohydrates is usually that of
water (H20).
Carbohydrates are classified by the number of ___________ that make up their stucture.
Saccharides with one sugar unit are
Saccharides with two sugar units are
Saccharides with more than two sugar units are
Polysaccharides are complex
The three important monosaccharides are
glucose, fructose, galactose
Galactose is a product of
lactose digestion.
Saccharides that need no further breakdown once ingested are
The basic single sugar in body metabolism is
Glucose is sometimes called
Glucose is not usually found alone in the diet except in
corn syrup.
The monosaccharide found mainly in fruit and honey is
The riper the fruit, the more __________ it contains.
The sweetest monosaccharide known is
The three main disaccharides are
sucrose, lactose, and maltose.
Sucrose is made up of the monosaccharides
glucose and fructose.
Comes in the form of granulated, powdered, and brown sugars and also molasses.
Lactose is made up of the monosaccharides
glucose and galactose.
Lactose is formed in the
mammary glands.
Lactose is not found in
This disaccharide encourages the growth of bacteria in the intestine and takes longer to digest.
Lactose aids in the absorption of _________, and _________, all three of which are in milk.
calcium and phosphorus
Maltose is made up of the two monosaccharides
glucose and glucose.
This disaccharide is derived from intermediate breakdown of starch.
The most signigicant polysaccharide found in the human diet is
Whole grain products are products that have been ___________ and still contain
unrefined, its outer bran layers and inner germ.
Enriched wheat products are products that have been enriched with
The polysaccharide found in animal muscle tissue and the liver is
During short term fasting periods this stored sugar helps maintain blood glucose levels.
A major vitamin and mineral intake source for children today is
enriched cereals.
Polysaccharide that provides energy for immediate muscle action.
The three types of dietary fiber important to human nutrition are
cellulose, noncellulose polysaccharides, and lignin.
Noncellulose polysaccharides include
hemicellulose, pectins, gums, and mucilages, and algal substances.
Since dietary fiber cannot be digested by the body it serves as a nutrient for
health promotion.
Cellulose comes from
the cell walls of plants.
Cellulose helps move food mass through the intestine by
adding bulk to the diet.
absorb water adding bulk, bind bile acids in the intestine, and provide fermentation material on which colon bacteria can work.
Noncellulose polysaccharides
The only noncarbohydrate type of dietary fiber is
Lignin comes from
the woody parts of plants.
Antioxidant that binds bile acids, cholesterol, and metals.
Dietary fibers are classified by whether or not they are
soluble or insoluble in water.
Insoluble fibers are
cellulose, most hemicelluloses, and lignin.
Soluble fibers are
gums, mucilages, algal polysaccharides, and most pectins.
DRIs for dietary fiber for men and women under 50 are
38 to 25 grams a day.
DRIs for dietary fiber for men and women over 50 are
30 to 21 grams a day.
Sweetners that do not contribute to total calorie intake.
Nonnutritive sweetners
Carbohydrates burn at a rate of
Fat also provides energy but is used mainly to
supply essential fatty acids.
The total amount of carbohydrate in the body amounts to
about half-a-days worth of energy.
The constant intake of carbohydrates keeps the body from using ___________ and __________ from tissue for energy.
fat and protein
slowly available glucose.
readily available glucose.
The enzyme that begins to break down carbohydrates in the mouth is
salivary amylase.
Salivary amylase is secreted by the
parotid glands.
Muscle action causing wavelike contractions that mix food in the stomach.
Once food is mixed in the stomach it is called
Enzyme that is secreted from the pancreas that breaks down starch.
Pancreatic amylaze
The three enzymes attached to the brush border are
sucrase, lactase, and maltase.
The lack of lactase causes
lactose intolerance.