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116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Regular exersice increases the bodys ability to use energy from
An example of an athlete who is most likely to benifit from a multivitamin/mineral supplement that provides 100% of the DRI is a
An ergogenic aid that may have proven beneficial effects is
An ergogenic aid that has been associated with serious side effects and even death is
Competitive athletes are vulnerable to marketing claims about supplements and erfofenic aids because
a slight increase in performance can allow them to win
During exercise the digestive process
slows down
The process by which one person learns a healthful lifestyle behavior by following the example of another person is known as
An athele's kcal intake is appropriate if he or she
maintains a competitive and healthy weight
The % of weight loss caused by sweating that is associated with impaired athletic performance is
The best indicator of fluid loss diring a workout is
loss of body weight
Sports drinks may be preferable to water for athletes who
exercise for longer than 90 minutes
An example of a good food for replacing glycogen stores is
breakfast cereal
Carbohydrate loading increases glycogen stores in muscles by combining
rest and increased carbohydrate intake
An example of someone who would have a significantly higher protein requirement than a sedintary adult is a
female runner with a low kcal intake
When an athlete eats more protient or amino acids than he or she needs, the extra amino acids are
deaminated and used as an energy source
The fuel for all body processes that traps energy released from food is(are)
adenosine triphosphate
Energy-supplying nutrients are eventually broken down to
carbon dioxide and water
The totaly amount of energy in a bowl of soup that contains 5 g of protein, 2 g of fat, and 20 g of carbohydrates is
118 kcal
Aerobic glycolysis occurs in the
Before they enter the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fatty acids are broken down to
acetyl coenzyme A
In order to be used as an energy source, amino acids have to undergo
Energy for short-term, high-intensity activities such as sprinting is obtained mostly via
anaerobic pathways
As the duration of exercise increases, more energy is obtained from oxidation of
fatty acids
Basal metabolic rate represents
the amount of energy reqired to suppor life-sustaining processes
The factor that has the greatest impact on energy expenditure is
body size
The process by which the body uses energy to adjust to changes in enviromental conditions is called
adaptive thermogenesis
The three components of physical fitness are
flexability, muscular strength, and cardiovascular endurance
The amount of physical activity needed to maintain physical fitness depends on the
intensity of activity
Health benefits generally associated with strength training include
increased bone density
The factor that is most effective in increasing muscle mass is
To maintain a healthy weight, the most important goals are related to changes in
Behavioral goals are tailored to
individual habits and preferences
When trying to pay attention to hunger and satiety cues, it is often helpful to eat
The best way to maintain lean body moss is to
exercise regularly
National programs that aim to reverse the trend of increasing body weight should focus on
achievenment of a healthier body weight
Medical nutrition therapy for weight management should focus on
a range on long term lifestyle skills
Excess fat is stored in out bodies as
triglycerides in adipocytes
The increase in the number of adipocytes in the body during growth spurts is known as
They best way to measure body fat levels is to use
underwater weighing (densitometry)
To lose a pound of body fat in a week, daily energy expenditure would ahve to increase by about
500 kcal
The causes of obesity are largely
According to set point theory, if weight or fatness falls below the level perceived to be appropriate by the body, the individual will
experience an overall increase in hunger drive.
Factors that appear to help reduce the body's set point for body weight and body fatness include
regular aerobic exercise
A major problem associated with cycles of weight loss and weight gain is
loss of sensitivity to physiologic hunger cues
Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of
diabetes mellitus
Being overweight is associated with greater health risks in
younger adults than in older adults
Adverse effects of obesity that are not life theatening but decrease quality of life include
Restrained eating is defined as
limiting food intake to less than natural appetite
The bodys phyiologic need for food is experienced as
The amount of body fat (as a percentage of body weight) that is essential to support life is
3%-8% in men and 12% to 14% in women
In women, very low levels of body fat may be associated with
The ratio of waist circumference to hip circumference should be
0.95 to 1.0 or less in men and 0.8 or less in women
Compared to women, it aprrears to be easier for men to lose weight because
visceral fat is lost more easily than lower body fat
An individual has a distorted body image when
his or her perception of his or her body differs from reality
Cultural influences have had a greater influence on body perception during the past few decades because of the increase in
mass media
A healthy and positive body image is associated with
realistic evaluation and acceptance of out positive and negative attributes
Body Mass index (BMI) is
weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters
Risk of mortality in adults is lowest for those with body mass index that is between
20 and 25
The increased risk of mortality in individuals with a very low body mass index is probably related to
low levels of lean body mass
Fat stored in the abdominal area is called
visceral fat
Excess protein in an infants diet is a problem because
it increases renal solute load
Supplemental fluoride and vitamin D may be given to an infant who is
Vit K is the
fat-soluble vitamin routinely given to newborns
A food that is to high in protein and may lead to dehydration when regularly consumed by infants less than 1 year old is
cow's milk
When the baby shows an interest in what the family is eating it is a sign of readiness for
intro to solid foods
Tube feeding is often required by babies born before 34 weeks because
they lack a coordinated suck and swallow reflex
Increased chance of miscarriage may be attributable to
smoking during pregnancy
Pregnant women who smoke have a high risk of giving birth to an infant with
low birth weight
During Pregnancy women should
avoid very strenuous exercise
Marked edema is a symptom of
Recommendations for treatment of gestational diabetes include
dietary control
Easy digestion of breast milk and resistance to infection are
two of the advantages of breastfeeding
Prolactin is the hormone that
is responsible for milk synthesis
Nursing by the infant results in
sustained milk production
Weight gain during pregnancy is a variable that is highly correlated with
infant birthweight
A woman needs to increase her kcal intake by about 300 kcal daily during
the second and third trimesters of pregnancy
4 months pregnant and has already gained 25 pounds should
modify her food intake if it is excessive but not attempt to lose weight
low intake of folate during pregancy is associated with risk of
neural tube defects
Vouchers for food are benefits of the
USDA's WIC prgoram
Maternal RBC volume and iron storage in the fetus result in a increased need for
Maternal stores of calcium become depleted if
maternal dietary intake of calcium is inadequate
Teratogens are
substances known to cause malformations in the unborn fetus
Relaxation of smooth muscle cells is an example of physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy and is caused by
Hormones associated with pregnancy cause many of the discomforts of pregnancy. The relacation of smooth muscles us a hormonal effect that contributes to
An increase in O2 needs during pregnancy results in increased
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
The increase in plasma volume during pregnancy may appear to cause
lower blood levels of hemoglobin
Intrauterine growth restriction may be caused by
poor weight gain during pregnancy
Gaining 25-35 lbs during pregnancy in a normal healthly woman is considered
the current recommended range for weight gain
a weight gain of 15-25 lbs during pregnancy is recommened for
an obese woman
Food allergies are treated by
avoiding all sources of the offending food
Treatment of food allergies
avoiding all sources of the offending food
Who should avoid food that includes sodium caseinate and lactalbumin?
people with a milk allergy
eating disorders are generally caused by
unresolved emotional conflicts
Binge eating is triggered by
stressful events
Nutrition intervention for clients with eating disorders includes an
educational phase and an experimental phase
Teenage girls need adequate calcium because
adolescent girls often have inadequate intakes of calcium-rich food
reduce the risk of asphyxiation in toddlers is to make sure that they
sit down while eating and chew all foods well
Lead poisoning is often diagnosed at the same time as
iron deficiency anemia
Children become overweight because of
a combination of several factors
Medical nutriton for obese chilren should focus on
healthy eating patterns
Iron deficiency anemia in children
is often due to poverty
Most common childrens allergies
peanuts, milk, eggs and wheat
A true food allergy involves
the immune system
Teach kids foods with high sugar should be
allowed in moderate amounts with a reasonable frequency
Parents should teach kids to
recognize internal hunger cues
amount of fruits and veggies children should consume daily
5 servings with serving sizes smaller than those for adults
Children may be encouraged to try a new food if
they participate in preparing the food
National school lunch program provides
lunches at varying costs depending on family income
School Breakfast Program includes
a serving of milk and fruit, 2 servings of meat and or bread and cereal
To promote healthy adolescent food choices, parents should
create guidlelines for dietary patterns and provide appropriate food choices
In feeding children, adults are responsible for determining
the quantity and quality of food prepared
Children should be fed
at about the same times each day
Deitary Guidelines for Americans are considered to be appropriate for
Any one over 2 years old
Children ages 1-3 years have an increasing sense of
Excessive juice intake is bad for kids because
it may displace more nutrient dense foods
Children ages 4-6 years generally prefer foods that are
served separately on the plate