Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/40

Click to flip

40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is calcium?
-its functions?
-calcium is a mineral
-3 lbs found in bones and 1% in other fluids
-most abundant mineral found in bone
-muscle+nerve activity-clotting
functions of-
flouride-
copper-
iron-
flouride- components of bone and teeth-helps rebuild enamel
copper- utilization of oxygen + iron- growth, immunity, cholesterol, brain development
iron- transports oxygen-in myoglobin- needed for reactions such as energy formation
role of hemoglobin-
myoglobin-
hemoglobin- contains iron in red blood cells- helps transport energy-
myoglobin- traps oxygen delivered by hemoglobin- boosts supply of oxygen available to muscles
what is iron deficiency-
who does it affect?
-most widespread nutritional definiciency
-weak and tired
-affects very young children+women of child bearing age-lost blood due to injury, surgery, ulcers-
overdose on iron?
-deposits in liver, pancreas, heart
-can result in liver disease, diabetes, heart failure
Blood pressure-
-normal, prehypertension, hypertensions- causes-
blood pressure- the amount of pressure exerted on the walls of blood vessels
hypertension- 140/90- high sodium intake
normal- 120/80 mmHG
prehypertension- 139/89
sodium-
-salt sensitivity-
-maintain normal water balance-
-people genetically susceptible to raise in BP more in response to high-sodium diets than other people
role of hemoglobin-
myoglobin-
hemoglobin- contains iron in red blood cells- helps transport energy-
myoglobin- traps oxygen delivered by hemoglobin- boosts supply of oxygen available to muscles
DASH diet-
-aids in reducing hypertension
-high in fruits+grains- low in meets and fats
high sources of sodium/iron/calcium-
calcium- milk and dairy products+fortified foods
sodium- salt+pickles+cream soup+ham
iron- fortified cereals-prune juice-liver
DASH diet-
-aids in reducing hypertension
-high in fruits+grains- low in meets and fats
high sources of sodium/iron/calcium-
calcium- milk and dairy products+fortified foods
sodium- salt+pickles+cream soup+ham
iron- fortified cereals-prune juice-liver
water-
essential nutrient
what is water?
an essential nutrient
what foods have high water content?
-tomato, watermelon, orange juice, milk,
functions of water in the body
-main source of flouride
-role in chemical reactions- carb breakdown
-bodies cooling system
-where does water come from?
-foods
-freshwater sources
bottled water-
-no such thing as gourmet water
-regulated by the FDA
-considered generally safe
-most is tap water
water deficiency-
water toxicity-
deficiency - dehydration, very sick, nausea, fast heart beat, +body temp, dizziness
toxicity- hyponatremia, low blood sodium, confusion, headache, nausea, vomiting
energy formation
anaerobic- glucose >muscle glycogen>ATP (no oxygen)
aerobic- pyruvate/fatty acids>ATP w/ oxygen -low intensity exercise
carb loading
-benefit athletes in endurance events
-60-70% of calories are carbs
-muscles load w/ glycogen
-do not improve activities lasting less than 1-2 hours
role of protein in athletes
- helps repair muscle tissue
role of water intake in athletes
- reduce fatigue and dehydration
hyponutremia
-sodium deficiency in blood (135mmol/L)
dehydration- consequences
2% b.w. in water reduction = dehydration
-heat exhaustion+heat stroke
ergogenic aids
athlete "aids"
dietary supplements - no testing for harm
caffeine-
stimulant-decrease fatigue-reduces fatigue in studies
chromium picolinate
involved in energy metabolism
-increase lean body mass + fatloss
-no effects found in studies
ginseng-
-enhances endurance and strength
-studies show benefits
Threats to safety of food supply
-foodborne illness (ecoli, salmonella, mad cow)
-cross-contamination of foods
-mishandled food supply
-hormones
-pesticides
cross contamination of food
-substances can contaminate safe foods during processing, shipping, prep, and storage
causes+consequences of food-borne illness'
-bacteria, viruses, parasites (infectious agents)
-noninfectious (toxins+contaminates)
salmon, campylobacater, ecoli
salmonella
diarrhea, ab pain, chills, fever, vomiting, dehydration
-eggs, milk, raw meat, veges+fruits
campulobacter
diarrhea (bloody), ab pain, fever, vomiting
ecoli
watery+bloody diarrhea, ab pain, maybe fever
noroviruses
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
seafood illness'
industrial population, mercury contamination, ciguatera fish poisoning (red tide)
mercury contamination
fungicides, fossil fuel exhaust, smelting plants pulp and papers mills, leather tanning facilities
-large, longlived fish
botulism
-deadliest toxin
-nerve + respiratory damage
-soil,ocean, lake sediment
-gas expands food container!
how to prevent food borne illness
-food safety regulations (irradiation of foods)
-consumer behavior
(wash hands, 40-135 danger, dont eat raw milk eggs meats, wash hands)