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86 Cards in this Set

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electrolytes

positively and negatively charged ions that conduct current in solution

most common electrolytes (elements)

Na, K, Cl

what happens to electrolytes after processing

high sodium and low potassium

functions of electrolytes (4)

regulate fluid balance, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, blood pressure regulation

polarity

molecule that has a positive charge on one end and a negative one on the other

blood is __% water

90%

functions of water (4)

transport oxygen/nutrients, lubricate and cleanse, regulate body temp, metabolic reactionsh

how does water regulate body temp (3)

water holds onto heat, can increase/decrease amount of heat lost by skin thru blood vessels, sweat

2 types of metabolic reactions water is involved in

hydrolysis and condensation

hydrolysis

breaks molecules into small ones by adding water

condensation

joins 2 molecules together, hydrogen and oxygen are bi-products (form water)

osmosis

passive movement of water thru a semi-permeable membrane. equalizes concentrations on either side of membrane

extracellular fluid

fluid outside of cells (1/3 of water found here)

intracellular fluid

fluid inside cells (2/3 of water found here)

intercellular (interstitial) fluid

extracellular fluid located in spaces between cells

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

secreted by pituitary gland, increase amount of water reabsorbed by kidneys (retained in body)

function of kidneys

regulate amount of water excreted in urine

aldosterone

hormone that increases sodium reabsorption and thus increases water retention

how is water absorbed

in GI tract by osmosis

hypertension

high blood pressure (over 140/90 mmHg)

what increases risk of hypertension

high sodium

DASH (whats its stand for and whats it do)

dietary approaches to stop hypertension. used to find foods that affect high blood pressure

minerals (3) what are they

inorganic elements. needed as body structural component and regulators of body process. may combine with things but retain chemical identity

major minerals

needed in body in amounts greater than 100mg/day

trace minerals

needed in body in amounts less than 100 mg/day

are minerals from plant or animals sources better absorbed and why

animal sources better absorbed because plants have substances that bind to minerals (making them less absorbable)

substances that bind to minerals limiting absorption (3)

phytates, tannins, oxalate

what is the hardest and strongest structure in body

bone (b/c of minerals)

2 types of bone

cortical and trabecular

cortical bone (3)

80% of skeleton. forms sturdy dense outer surface area. aka compact bone

trabecular bone (3)

forms inner lattice. lines bone marrow cavity. aka spongy bone

osteoblasts

forms bones

osteoclasts

breaks down bone

peak bone mass

when maximum bone density is reached and formation slows down

osteoporosis

bone disorder characterized by a reduction in bones mass, increases in bone fragility, increased risk of fracture

post menopausal bone loss

accelerated bone loss that occurs around menopause

what is the most abundant mineral in body

calcium

functions of calcium (3)

provide structure to bones/teeth, regulatory roles, blood pressure regulation

__________ is needed for active transport and absorption of calcium

vitamin D

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

increased blood calcium levels

calcitonin

reduces blood calcium levels

function of phosphorous (4)

rigidity of bones, cell membrane structure, ATP, DNA/RNA

sources of phosphorous

dairy products, meats, cereals, eggs

magnesium function (4)

healthy bone structure, ATP generation, calcium homeostasis, cofactor of over 300 enzymes

sources of magnesium (2)

leafy greens, chlorophyll

sulfur function (2)

protein synthesis, ATP production

source of sulfur

protein foods (meat)

hemoglobin

iron containing component in blood

myoglobin

iron containing component in muscle

which type of iron comes from which sources and which is more easily absorbed

heme iron is from animals - more efficiently absorbed. nonheme iron is from plants

function of iron (2)

deliver oxygen to cells, ATP production

ferritin

iron storage protein

transferrin

iron transport protein in blood

hemosiderin

stores iron when ferritin is full

iron deficiency anemia

hemoglobin cannot be produced so there is inadequate oxygen deliver to tissues

hemochromoatosis

iron overload condition. inherited, causes increased iron absorption

most abundant trace element

zinc

which source of zinc is better absorbed

animal products

zinc function (3)

enzymatic reactions, gene expression, making superoxide dismutaste

superoxide dismutaste

protects cells from free radical damage

metallothionein

protein that binds metals (binds to zinc and copper making them less absorbable)

food sources of copper

organ meat

function of copper (4)

iron/lipid metabolism, connective tissue synthesis, heart muscle maintenance, immune and central nervous system health

_______ can decrease the bioavailability of copper (why?)

zinc. a lot of zinc synthesizes a lot of metallothionein which also binds to cppper

ceruloplasmin

copper-carrying protein in blood

food sources of manganese

whole grains, legumes, nuts

function of manganese (2)

constituent of some enzymes and activator of others. needed to make superoxide dismutase (makes 1 form, Cu and Zn make other)

selenium function

prevents a heart disorder (common in china)

selenoproteins function (2)

selenium proteins. protects from oxidative damage, helps thyroid gland function

selenium content of food depends on ______

selenium content of soil where its grown/ fed to animals

symptoms of selenium toxicity

brittle hair, brittle thick nails, garlic odor on breath/skin

keshan disease

selenium deficiency. heart muscle disease

iodine function (2)

synthesis of thyroid hormone. gene expression

goiter

iodine deficiency, enlarged thyroid

cretinism

results from poor iodine in mom during pregnancy, kids don't develop properly

goitrogens

limit bioavailability of iodine

fluoride function

dental health

fluorosis

fluoride toxicity. mottled teeth. stained/pitted teeth

fitness

ability to perform physical activity without undue fatigue

overload principle

concept that you body will adapt to stress placed it

aerobic exercise

endurance exercise. anything that increase heart rate and requires oxygen in metabolism

cardiorespiratory endurance

how efficiently body delivers nutrients to cells

aerobic capacity (what it is and another name for it)

bodys maximum ability to generate ATP by aerobic metabolism during exercise. aka VO2 max

hypertrophy

muscles adapt to stress and increase in size and strength

atrophy

when muscles arent used they become smaller and weaker

stroke volume

amount of blood pumped with each heartbeat