• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

137 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

what is the contribution had Florence Nightingale towards nursing proffession?

she was the first practicing nurse epidemiologist and my statastical analyses connected poor sanitation with cholera and dysentry
who was Clara Barton?

She founded the American Red Cross and attended to soldiers on the battlefields during the CivilWar.

Harriet Tubman
she was active underground Railroad movement and assisted in leading over 300 slaves to freedom.
Mary Mahoney
First professionaly trained African American nurse. She was concerned with relationships between cultures and races
Isabel Hampton Robb
She helped found the Nurses' Associated Alumnae of the United States and Canada in 1896 which later became the American Nurses Association in 1911.
Lillian Wald and Mary Brewster
Opened the Henry Street Settlement, which focused on the health needs of poor people who lived in tenements in New York City
Mary Adelaide Nutting
Became first proffesor of nursing at Columbia Universsity Teachers College in 1906
What are the Characteristics of a nursing profession ?
1) Requies an extended education of its members as well as basic liberal education. 2) has a theoretical knowledge leading to defined skills, abilities to norms. 3) Provides a specific service. 4) Members have autonomy in decision-making and practice. 5) Has a code of ethics for practice.
what is Nursing's Meta Paradigm ( Domain)
1) Describes the central phenomena of interest to the profession. 2) A paradigm links science, philosophy and theories accepted and applied by the profession. 3) includes interrelationship of four elements: person, health, environment/situation and nursing.
What so important about nursing theory?
1) it generates nursing knowledge for use in practice 2) theories explains phenomena 3) Guide how to design each individual's nursing interventions. 4) Provides nurse with a perspective to view the patient situation, a way to organize data and a method to analyze the interpret information. 5) provides direction to nursing research. 6) Nurses require a theoretical base to demonstrate the science and art of their profession.
What is definition of ANA (American Nurse Association) of nurse Practice?
Nursing protects, promotes and optimizes health and abilities, prevents illness and injury, alleviates suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response and advocates for the care of individuals and families, communities, and population.
what are the ANA standard of practice and standard of professional persormance?
1) Assessment: The RN can analyze the assessment data which is relavent to patient's health situation. 2) Diagnosis: The RN analyse the data to determine the diagnosis or issues. 3) Outcome identification: The RN identifies the expected outcome for a patient based on patient's situation. 4) Planning: The RNs develop a plan to achieve expected outcome for patient. 5) Implementation: The RNs implements the identified plan using co
what are the most common forms of advanced dirctives?
1) Living wills: details a person's care preferences in regrads to issues like, mechanical ventilation, artifical hydrationor nutrition, dialysis and antibiotics. 2) Durable power of attorney for health care - (DPOA) - name a specific person as a proxy or surrogate to make halth care decisions in the event that a person temprary or permanent looses the capacity for decision making.
what are the 7 dimentions of Patient-Centered Care?
1) Respect values, Preferences and Expressed need 2) Coordination and Integration of care 3) Informatio, communication and Education. 4) Physical Comfort. 5) Emotional support and relief of fear and anxiety 6) Involvement of family and friends 7) Transition and continuity 8) Access to care
what categories of people are more likely to be a part of vulnerable populations?
individuals living in poverty, older adults, homeless, individuals in abusive relationships, mentally ill, new immigrant (language barrier)
What is HIPPA?
Health Insurane Portability and Accountability Act ( HIPPA) by congress in 1996 to limit the ability of an employer to deny health insurance coverage to employees with preexisting medical conditions.
What are the common health problems in community dwelling older adults?
hypertension, cancer, arthritis, visual impairment, Alzheimer's
what are the main rules of HIPPA?
1) the privacy rules of set standards for the protection of health info. 2) Patient's info record is confidential. 3) all individual data for health info like birth date, address, SSN, MR #, past, present or future mental health or condition, any past, present, future payment for health care. These all info are limited to health care facilities.
what is the purpose of Pateint Self-Determination Act ?
The main goal of PSDA to encourage patients to indicate their preferance for end of life care before the need arrives
identify six level of care are commnly offered and what are their focus?
1) Primary care: fouces on improved health outcome for entire population: prenatal and baby well care, family planning, nutrition counseling, exercise classes 2) Prevention care : edecation and prevention: BP, cancer screening, immunizations, mental health counceling and crisis prevention, and community legislation i.e seat belt, bycle helmet, air bags 3) Secondary: Emergency treatment critical care, exp: emergency care, acute medical surgical care, radiological procedures for acute care (x-rays, CT scan) 4) Tertiary care: intensive care, subacute care. 5) Restorative care: Health care setting in which patients who are recovering from illness or disability receive rehabilation and supportive care Exp: sports medicine, spinal injury program, home care, 6) Continuing care: For long period of time, people who are disabled: assisted living, psychiatric and older adult day care, extended care facilities.
How can nurses help facilitate the PSDA?
the ANA recommends the nurses ask patients these question: 1) do have basic info about advance care like living wills, power of attorney. Do you wish to initiate an advance directive? If you have already prepared, can you provide it now? Have you dissucused your end of life choices with your family or designated surrogate and health team worker?

what is the code of ethics and how important for nursing proffession?

Set of guiding principles that all members of a profession accept.
Collective statement about the group’s expectations and standards of behavior.
ANA established the first code of nursing ethics
ANA Code reviewed and revised regularly to reflect practice changes but basic principles remain constant; responsibility, accountability, advocacy and confidentiality.

What is definition of ICN of nurse Practice?

simillar to ANA and addition to advocacy, promotion of safe environment, research, participation in shaping health policy and in patient and health system management, and education are also key nursing roles.

what is abrasion?

wound that caused by superficial damage to skin. No deeper than epidermis

what is contusion?

A contusion (aka bruise) is an area of skin discoloration. A bruise occurs when small blood vessels break and leak their contents into the soft tissue beneath the skin.

what is ischemia?
insufficient blood flow to tissues, not enough oxygen. Compression of pressure point for prolonged period of time by bony prominences or external sources cause tissue death.
what is lacertation ?
deep cut or tare
what is puncture ?
injured by pointed object
What is stab?
deep stab, penetration
what is pressure ulcer?
localized injury to the skin and underlying tissue over a bony prominence as a result of pressure/friction of shear.
How wound can described in diffrent stages?
abrasion, contusion, incision, inchemia, lacertation, puncture, stab, pressure ulcer
what are the four phases of full thickness wound repair?
hemostasis, inflammatory phase, Proliferative phase, Remodeling
Where are common locations for pressure ulcers?
bony prominences
Where are common locations of venous ulcers?
above the ankle
on the medial lower leg
Where are common locations for arterial ulcers
lower leg, dorsum of the foot, malleolus, toe joints, lateral border of the foot
What are common locations for diabetic/neuropathic ulcers?
plantar surface of foot, metatarsal heads, heels, lateral border of foot

(many of the same places as arterial)
What is a pressure ulcer
localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue (usually over a bony prominence) as a result of pressure or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction
Pressure Ulcer: Stage I
nonblanchable erythema

intact skin with non–blanchable redness of a localized area usually over a bony prominence

darkly pigmented skin may not have visible blanching, but its color may differ from the surrounding tissues
What may a pressure ulcer stage I feel like?
may be painful, firm, warmer or cooler as compared to adjacent tissue
What do you do to check if there's a stage I pressure ulcer?
change position and if it still has a nonblanchable reddness, then it's a stage one
What is the best time to treat a pressure ulcer?
stage one
Pressure Ulcer: Stage II
partial thickness loss of dermis presenting as a shallow open ulcer with a red pink wound bed, without slough

May present as an intact or open/ruptured serum–filled blister
Do you have an open area in stage II?
What is the depth of a stage II pressure ulcer?
nothing beyond 0.2 cm
Can you use stage II to describe skin tears, tape burns, perineal dermatitis, maceration or excoriation?
What do you do if you can't see the bottom of the wound (wound base)
you cannot stage it
What is a maceration from?
sitting in a wet environment
Do you have an open area in stage II?
What is the depth of a stage II pressure ulcer?
nothing beyond 0.2 cm
Can you use stage II to describe skin tears, tape burns, perineal dermatitis, maceration or excoriation?
What do you do if you can't see the bottom of the wound (wound base)
you cannot stage it
What is a maceration from?
sitting in a wet environment
What is an excoriation from?
moisture site
Pressure Ulcer: Stage III
*full thickness tissue loss
*subQ fat may be visible but bone, tendon, or muscle are not exposed
*slough may be present but does not obscure the depth of tissue loss
*may include undermining and tunneling
*bone–tendon is not visible or directly palpable
What stage is bone/tendon visible and directly palpable?
stage IV
What is the depth of a Stage III?
greater than 0.2 cm, but you are not able to see bone/tendon
Pressure Ulcer: Stage IV
*full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, or muscle
*sloud or eschar may be present on some parts of the wound bed
*often includes undermining or tunneling
*exposed bone/tendon is visible or directly palpable
Pressure Ulcer: Unstageable
full thickness tissue loss in which the base of the ulcer is covered by slough (yellow, tan, gray, green or brown) and/or eschar (tan, brown, black) in thewound bed
What colors are slough?
yellow, tan, gray, green or brown
What colors are eschar?
tan, brown, or black
What must you do in order to stage an unstageable pressure ulcer?
remove enough slough and/or eschar to expose the base of the wound, as well as the true depth
What stages must be reported to the state?
stage 3, 4, or unstageable
Pressure Ulcer: Suspected Deep Tissue Injury
purple or maroon localized area of discolored intact skin or blood–filled blister due to damange of underlying sotft tissue from pressure and/or shear
What may precede a suspected deep tissue injury?
tissue that is painful, firm, mushy, boggy, warmer or cooler as compared to adjacent tissue
What must be done with a suspected deep tissue injury?
it MUST be caught early, then it may be able to be reversed
otherwise, it may break open and cause death
What may occur with pressure ulcers (tip of the iceberg)
may get worse before it gets better
What is reverse staging of pressure ulcers?
once the ulcer is staged, that remains the stage and would severity diagnosis
What would you call a pressure ulcer that was staged as a stage III and now appears to be a stage II after it has begun healting?
a healing Stage III pressure ulcer
What is a venous ulcer?
lesion caused by insufficient backflow of blood into the venous system, failure of calf muscle pump to improve venous return, and bacflow causes capillary distenstion, fluid extravasation, tissue ischemia leading to ulceration and decreased delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the skin caused by capillary fibrin cuffing and white cell trapping
What can be done to support venous blood flow?
compression therapy
What is the main cause of a venous ulcer?
valve incompetence in perforating veins
What will you feel like with a venous ulcer?
tired when active and resting makes it better
What will you feel like with an arterial ulcer?
better when feet are down and active; hate resting
Arterial ulcer
lesion caused by narrowing and eventual occlusion of the extremity artery
What do a lot of arterial ulcers look like?
precise lesions
What is neuropathy
a chronic complication fo diabetes in which the nerves have been damaged so the person's foot is primarily insensate and does not feel pressure, injuries, or infection
What are partial–thickness wounds?
shallow, involves the epidermins and dermis, moist, painful, pink–red color, up to 0.2 cm
Full–Thickness wound
*extends to subcutaneous layer or deeper: over 0.2 cm depth
*may include necrotic tissue or infection
*often extensive tissue damage
When is pressure ulcer documented?
on admission
What length of the ulcer do you measure
the longest length in cm measured from head to toe (12:00–6:00)
What width of the ulcer to you measure?
longest width in cm measured from side to side (9:00–3:00)
the widest portion that is still perpendicular
What is the wound depth
distance from visible skin surface to wound bed
How can you assess wound depth
by using a clean cotton–tipped applicator or a cm measuring device placed in the deepest part of the wound, marking it, and then measuring it upon removal
What is a sinus tract/tunnel?
channel that extends from any part of the wound through subcutaenous tissue or muscle
How do you document a tunnel?
measuring depth and noting location using face of clock as a guide
Tissue destruction that occurs under intact skin around the wound perimeter
How do you document/measure undermining?
measure depth and note location using face of the clock as a guide
Necrotic tissue
tissue that has died and lost is physical properties and biologic activity
black or brown necrotic, devitalized tissue
*can be loose or firmly adherence, hard, soft or boggy
If eschar is one the heels and hard, firm, well attached and has no sign of infection, what do you do?
leave it
If the heel is boggy, draining and has infection what do you do?
remove it
soft, moist, avascular (necrotic or devitalized) tissue
What may slough look/feel like?
white, yellow, tan or green
loose or firmly adherent
Granulation tissue
deep pink/ red moist tissue comprised of new blood vessels, connective tissue, fibroblasts, and inflammatory cells that fill an open wound when it starts to heal

*surface is granular, berry like or cobblestone in appearance
Clean, non granulating tissue
absence of granulation on wound surface

*appears smooth and red but not granular, berry like or cobblestone appearing
Epithelial tissue
regenerated epidermis across the wound surface
*pink color and dry appearance
How do you describe hte amount of tissue in the wound bedd
a transparent measuring guide with concentric circles dividing into four pie shaped quadrants that can help to determine percentage of wound involved
drainage of the wound
Blood exudate
thin, bright red
serous exudate
thin, watery, clear
Serosanguineous exudate
think, watery, pale red to pink
purulent exudate
thin or thick and opaque tan to yellow
foul purulent exudate
thick, opaque yellow to green with offensive odor
No exudate
wound tissues dry
Scant exudate
wound tissues moist; no measurable exudate
Small exudate
wound tissues wet; moisture evenly distributed in wound; wound drainage invovles less than or equal to 25% of the dressing
Moderate exudate
wound tissues saturated; drainage may or may not be evenly distribuated in wound

drainage involves great than 25% to less than or equal to 75% of dressing
Large exudate
wound tissues bathed in fluid; drainage freely expressed; may or may not be evenly distributed in wound; drainage involves over 75% of dressing
**get moisture off of the wound!
What is amount of exudate important?
when choosing dressing and what compression therapy to use
What do you do before assessing a wound?
clean it first, use deodorizer in the air and then smell clean wound to see if it smells
What do you do if you think the wound smells
ensure that its the wound and not the dressing that smells
What is induration
firm skin that goes in
What are some conditions that may happen to the periwound skin?
callus, maceration, edema, skin color surrounding wound, peripheral tissue induration, temperature
What do you do for venous insufficiency ulcers?
What do you do for arterial ulcers?
open up circulation
What is important for diabetic ulcers?
get the right footwear! Find a place that measures and fits the foot!

get footwear as seamless as possible where you're able to move the toes
What should you do before debridement?
make sure the patient has been provided pain relief
What are some conditions that may happen to the periwound skin?
callus, maceration, edema, skin color surrounding wound, peripheral tissue induration, temperature
What do you do for venous insufficiency ulcers?
What do you do for arterial ulcers?
open up circulation
What is important for diabetic ulcers?
get the right footwear! Find a place that measures and fits the foot!

get footwear as seamless as possible where you're able to move the toes
What should you do before debridement?
make sure the patient has been provided pain relief
What do you check in wound before healing?
dead tissue
How do you remove necrotic tissue?
pulse lavage, soften tissue, ultrasound mist, debride
What are local factors?
presence of devitalized tissue, moistness of the wound bed (not wet but moist), presence of bacterial infection
What are some systemic factors
age, bodybuild, stress, diabetes, previous medical history, oxygen, nutrition, steroids, prealbumin
What can build up protein/albumin?
whey protein
What do you do before getting a would culture?
clean the would with saline, then once clean, twirl applicator along wound and into depth/ tunnel to get a good sample
What are some objectives to treatment
protect from further trauma, optimal and moist environment, remove devitalized tissue, optimal systemic conditions
What can you do to protect pressure ulcers?
pressure relief and patient movement
What can do you do protect venous ulcers?
What can you do to protect arterial ulcers?
restore circulation
What can you do to protect diabetic ulcers?
wear shoes any time out of bed
What are some ways to maintain optimal moist healing environment?
wound hydration and dressing selection
What can you do for debridement?
surgical, sharp, enzymes, polyurethane dressings, irrigations, wet to moist dressings
What are some optimal systemic conditions for healing?
nutritional status, diabetes control, stress, patient and family involvement, oxygen, sterois
What is the most effective treatment for pressure ulcers?