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51 Cards in this Set

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The mature ovum, released from the ovary, is protected by what two layers that allow one sperm to enter?
zona pellucida and corona radiata
In week __ the neural plate develops into the b____ and s___ c____.
3
brain, spinal cord
By week 4, the embryo is about 1/10th of an inch long. The eye, ear, umbilical cord, and the upper and lower limb buds can be visualized. What other important function has developed?
The heart, which is about the size of a poppyseed, has begun to beat.
By the 2nd month, what is the size of the embryo? At this time, it has distinct, slightly webbed fingers. ___ are clearly visible, and the heart has divided into right and left _____.
1 inch long
Veins
chambers
By the 3rd month, the fetus is 21/2 to 3 inches long and is fully formed. He has developed the motor ability to _____ and ____. All organs have formed and are beginning to function.
swallow, kick
By the 4th month, the baby is covered with a layer of thick, downy hair called ____. The ____ can be heard clearly.
lanugo, heartbeat
By the 5th month, a protective coating called ___ _____ begins to form on the baby's skin. The baby is about ___ long and weighs almost a pound.
vernix caseosa,
8 inches
At 6 months, the eyebrows and eyelids are visible. The lungs are filled with _____ ____ and he has started _____ motions.
amniotic fluid, breathing
By the end of the ____ month, the baby is about 12 " long and weighs about 3 lbs. Fingernails cover his fingertips.
7th
At about 8 months, the baby is gaining about a half a pound a week and layers of fat are piling on. He weighs between 4-6 lbs. In preparation for birth, the baby ...
has probably turned upside down.
At 9 months, the baby is about 6-9 lbs and measures between ___ and ___ inches
19 - 22
Vernix caseosa
white cheesy secretion that protects fetal skin
Lanugo, the fine, downy hair that covers the fetal body, helps what?
It helps the vernix stick to the skin.
Put in correct order:
embryo, zygote, fetus
zygote, embryo, fetus
placenta
the vascular organ developed in pregnancy that unites the fetus to the maternal uterus and mediates its metabolic exchanges through an intimate association of uterine mucosal with chorionic and allantoic tissues permitting exchange of material by diffusion between the maternal and fetal vascular systems but without direct contact between maternal and fetal blood
amnion
The thin, membranous sac filled with a serous fluid in which the embryo or fetus is enclosed and suspended in the uterus.
chorion
the highly vascular outer embryonic membrane
amnionic fluid
the serous fluid in which the embryo and fetus is suspended within the amnion
What substances are exchanged between mother and fetus within the intervillous space of the placenta?
Nutrients /Waste exchange
Gas exchange (O2 and CO2)
Antibody transfer
The ____ ___ connects placenta to the baby. It has two _____s and one ___
Umbilical cord
arteries
vein
In chromosome abnormalities, an entire single chromosome added is called a ______.
trisomy
In chromosome abnormalities, an entire single chromosome missing is called a ____.
monosomy
In chromosome abnormalities, when there is one or more added sets of chromosomes, it is called a ____.
polyploidy
The result of an extra copy of chromosome 21
Down Syndrome
What is the only viable monosomy in humans?
Turners Syndrome (Monosom X)

45 chromosomes
What are some S/S of Turners Syndrome?
Females don't mature sexually. Short stature, normal intelligence. 98% of fetuses die before birth.
Structural chromosome abnormalities include 4 types:
part of a chromosome missing or added

Rearrangements of material within chromosome(s)

2 chromosomes adhered to each other

Fragility of specific site on X chromosome
Infectious agents, drugs, chemicals, ionizing radiation, hyperthermia, and maternal disorders are all _______s.
teratogens
Why is a male at a disadvantage if his only X chromosome has an abnormal gene?
The male has no compensating normal gene because his other sex chromosome is a Y.
In the ABO blood system, which types are dominant?
A and B
Blood type ___ is the universal donor. Blood type ___ is the universal recipient.
O, AB

*double check me on this one*
Single-gene traits: Autosomal Recessive characteristics
2 autosomal recessive genes are required to produce the trait.
Males & females are equallly likely to be affected.
Most likely to occur in groups isoltes by geography, culture, or religion.
Unaffected parents are carriers.
Children of carriers have a 25% chance of receiving both copies of defective gene and getting disorder. Also 25% chance of receiving both copies of normal gene and not be a carreier and unaffected.
Children of carriers have a 50% chance of receiving one copy of the gene and being carriers like parents.
Examples of autosomal recessive traits
Blood Group O, Rh-negative blood factor, Tay-Sachs disease, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis
Single-gene traits: Autosomal Dominant characteristics
a single copy of the gene is enough to produce the trit.
Males and females equally likely.
Often appears in every generation of family.
May have multiple and seemingly unrelatedeffects on body structure/function
A parent with the trait has a 50% chance of passing the trait to the child.
Trait may arise as a new mutation.
Examples of autosomal dominant traits
Blood Groups A and B, Rh-positive blood factor, Huntington's disease, neurofibromatosis
Single Gene Traits: X-Linked Recessive characteristics
males are affected most often because only one copy of gene is needed to cause disorder.
Females are usually only carriers.
Affected males are related to one another through carrier females and do not transmit the trait to their sons.
Males with disorder transmit gene to 100% of daughters.
Sons of carrier females have a 50% chance of being carriers.
New X-linked recessive gee may arise by mutation
Examples of X-Linked Recessive traits
colorblindness, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, hemophilia A
____ defects are the result of interaction between one's genetic susceptibility and environmental factors during prenatal development.
Multifactorial
What are some factors that put a greater risk on the occurence of multifactorial defects?
several close relatives have defect, whether mild or severe.
One close relative has a severe form of defect.
The defect occurs in a child of the less frequently affected sex.
Consanguinity
close blood relationship (i.e. blood related parents)
Some examples of multifactorial disorders include...
many heart defects
neural tube defects such as anencephaly and spina bifida
cleft lip/palate
pyloric stenosis
What is anencephaly?
ansense of most of brain and skull
What is pyloric stenosis?
abnormal narrowing of the valve at the outlet from the stomach, preventing normal passage of food into the small intestine.
Rubella immunizations at least ___ weeks before pregnancy virtually eliminates the risk the mother will contract the infection, which can severely damage the fetus.
4. It should be offered after birth with a waiting period of at least 4 weeks before conceiving again.
What is oligohydramnios?
an abnormally small volume of amniotic fluid, which reduced the cushion surrounding the feus.
Oligohydramnios can result in disorders such as ...
clubfoot,
and if prolonged: interference with fetal lung development because it does not allow normal development of alveoli.
True or False: Genetic counseling focuses on the family rather than on an individual.
true
True or False: Genetic counseling is often a simple, easy process.
False. It is a slow process that is not always straightforward.
What is the ideal time to provide genetic counseling?
Before conception so the childbearing couple has more options if problems are identified.
Even if all prenatal test results are normal, a healthy couply has about a ___ percent chance of having a child with a birth defect.
five
Chromosomal abnormalities are either _____, with the addition or deletion of an entire chromosome or chromosomes, or ____, with deletion, addition, rearrangement, or fragility of chromosome material
numerical, structural