• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

167 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The study that deals with chemicals that affect the body's functioning.
Generic name
The name assigned to a drug by the manufacturer that first developed the drug; (identifies the drug's active ingredient).
Official name
The name by which the drug is identified in official publications; USP & National Formulary. Also, designated by the FDA.
Trade name (Brand name/Proprietary name)
Name selected by the drug company that sells the drug and is protected by trademark.
The effect of the body on the drug; in relation to absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
The process by which a drug is transferred from its site of entry into the body, to the bloodstream.
Dynamic that achieves the desired therapeutic effect of the drug without causing other undesirable effects.
Depends on blood flow to the tissues, the drug's ability to leave the bloodstream, and the drug's ability to enter the cells.
Metabolism (Biotransformation)
The change of a drug from its original form, to a new form.
The process of removing a drug, or it's metabolites, from the body.
The process by which drugs alter cell physiology and affect the body.
Adverse drug effects
Undesirable effects other than the intended therapeutic effect of a drug.
Anaphylactic Reaction (Anaphylaxis)

How is Anaphylaxis treated?
Occurs immediately after exposure to a drug; characterized by respiratory distress, sudden severe bronchospasm, and cardiovascular collapse. (Most serious allergic effect)

Treatment involves vasopressors, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, oxygen therapy, intravenous fluids, and antihistamines.
Allergic Effect
An immune system response that occurs when the body interprets the administered drug as a foreign substance and forms antibodies against the drug.
Drug tolerance
Occurs when the body becomes accustomed to the effects of a particular drug over a period of time.
Toxic effects (Toxicities)
Specific groups of symptoms related to drug therapy that carry risk for permanent damage or death.
Cumulative effect
Occurs when the body can't metabolize one dose of a drug before another dose is administered.
Idiosyncratic effect (Paradoxical effect)
Any unusual or peculiar response to a drug that may manifest itself by over response, under response, or the opposite of the expected response.
Antagonist effect
Combined effect of 2 or more drugs that produces less than the effect of each drug alone.
Synergistic effect
Combined effect of 2 or more drugs is greater than the effect of each drug alone.
Drugs know to have the potential to cause developmental defects,(especially in the first trimester) in the embryo or fetus, and are definitely contraindicated.
Therapeutic range
The concentration of drug in blood serum that produces the desired effect without causing toxicity.
Peak level
Highest plasma concentration, (measured when absorption is complete).
Trough level
The point when the drug is at its lowest concentration, (specimen usually drawn in 30min. interval, before next dose).
The amount of time it takes for 50% of the blood concentration of a drug to be eliminated from the body.
p.r.n. order
"as needed" order; patient receives medicine when it is requested or required.
STAT order (Single order)
Carried out immediately.
A glass flask that contains a single dose of medication for parenteral administration.
Outside the intestines or alimentary canal (used to refer to injection routes).
A glass bottle with a self-sealing stopper through which the medication is removed.
Intradermal injections
Administered into the dermis, just below the epidermis.
Subcutaneous injections
Administered into the adipose tissue layer, just below the epidermis and dermis.
Intramuscular injections
Deliver medication through the skin and subcutaneous tissues, into certain muscles.
Z-Track technique
Technique used to administer medications intramuscularly, that ensures the medication does not leak back along the needle track and into the subcutaneous tissue, reducing pain and discomfort.
Intravenous route
When the drug is administered directly into the bloodstream; It is the most dangerous route of administration and cannot be recalled, and its actions cannot be slowed!
Piggyback delivery system
Requires the intermittent or additive solution to be placed higher than the primary solution container.
Volume-control administration set (for intermittent intravenous infusion)
Medication diluted with a small amount of solution and administered through the patient's intravenous line.
Mini-infusion pump (syringe pump)
Used for intermittent infusion, is battery operated, and allows medication mixed in a syringe to be connected to the primary line and delivered by mechanical pressure applied to the syringe plunger.
Topical Applications
Usually intended for direct action at a particular site, although some can have systemic effects and are given for systemic effect.
Any substance that modifies body functions when taken into the body.
An order by the prescriber, conveying medication plans to others.
A pharmacologically inactive substance.
A disease state that results from the presence of pathogens in or on the body.
Disease-producing microorganisms.
The most significant and most commonly observed infection-causing agents in healthcare institutions; categorized by shape (spherical=cocci), (rod=bacilli), (corkscrew=spirochetes). Also, Gram + or Gram- stain.
Organisms that require oxygen to live and grow.
Organisms that do not require oxygen.
The smallest of all microorganism, visible only with an electron microscope.
Plant-like organisms (mold and yeasts) that also can cause infection, are present in the air, soil, and water.
Its ability to cause disease.
Occurs with predictability in one specific region to population can appear in a different geographical location.
For growth and multiplication of microorganisms is the natural habitat of the organism.
Foreign material in the body.
Immunoglobin produced by the body in response to a specific antigen.
Includes all activities to prevent infection or break the chain of infection.
Medical Asepsis
Clean technique; involves procedures and practices that reduce the number and transfer pathogens.
Surgical Asepsis
Sterile technique, includes practices used to render and keep objects and areas free from microorganisms.
Antibacterial agent that kills bacteria or suppresses their growth.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs)
(Nosocomial infections)
Infection acquired while in the course of treatment for other infections.
Infection, when the causative organism is acquired from other people.
Infection occurs when the causative organism comes from microbial life harbored in the person.
An infection, when it results from a treatment or diagnostic procedure.
Destroys all pathogenic organisms except spores.
Destroys all microorganisms, including spores.
Personal protective equipment (PPE)
Includes gloves, gowns, masks, and protective eye gear.
A protective procedure that limits spread of infectious diseases among hospitalized patients, personnel, and visitors.
Standardized precautions
Precautions used in the care of all hospitalized individuals regardless of their diagnosis or possible infection status.
Transmission-based precautions
Precautions used in addition to standard precautions for patients in hospitals with suspected infection with pathogen that can be transmitted airborne, droplet, to contact routes.
How can the Nursing Process by applied to medication administration?
Assessment includes a comprehensive medication history, awareness of the patient's allergies, and patient assessment, as well as ongoing assessments of the patient's response during and after medication administration. Nursing diagnoses are developed from the assessment data. Patient-centered outcomes are evaluated after implementation of the plan of care and are tailored to the patient's needs.
What type of knowledge base does a nurse need to administer medications?
Knowledge of Drug names, Preparations, Classifications, Adverse Effects, and Physiologic factors that affect drug action.
How can drugs be classified?
Drugs may be classified by effect on body systems (Drugs that affect the respiratory or cardiovascular system), by Chemical Composition, or by the clinical indication for the drug or therapeutic action(analgesic, antibiotic, etc).
What are the factors affecting absorption?
Route of administration, Lipid Solubility, pH, Blood flow, Local Conditions at the Site of Administration, Drug Dosage.
What is another name for a lozenge?

What is another name for a ointment?

What is a Loading Dose, and why is it used?
A larger than normal dose, which is usually given when a patient is in acute distress and the maximum therapeutic effect is desired as quickly as possible.
What is a maintenance dose?
A lower dosage that becomes the usual or daily dosage.
The study of the effect of ethnicity on responses to prescribed medication, especially drug absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion.
The study of genetic variations in response to drugs.
What are the 7 parts of the Medication Order?
1. Patient's name
2. Date and Time the order is written
3. Name of drug to be administered
4. Dosage of the drug
5. Route by which the drug is to be administered
6. Frequency of administration of the drug
7. Signature of person writing the order
How is the ratio-proportion method setup?
___dose on hand___ = ____dose desired____
quantity on hand X(quantity desired)
How is the dimensional analysis method setup?
__dose desired__ X quantity on hand=desired quant.
dose on hand
The nurse much check the accuracy of the medication label/container 3 times during medication preparation and administration.
1. When the nurse reaches for the container or unit dose package.
2. After retrieval from the drawer and compared with the CMAR, or compared with the CMAR immediately before pouring from a multi-dose container; and
3. When replacing the container to the drawer or shelf or before giving the unit dose medication to the patient.
What are the 5 rights of medication administration?
1.Right Medication(Drug)
2. Right Patient
3. Right Dosage
4. Right Route
5. Right Time
(6. Right Reason, 7. Right Documentation, 8. Right Client Education, 9. Right to Refusal, 10. Right Assessment/Evaluation)
Acute Pain
Pain rapid in onset, varies in intensity, from mild to severe. (Warning system by body symbolizing tissue damage or organic disease. Ex. causes include, a pricked finger, sore throat, or surgery.)
Chronic pain
Pain that may be limited, intermittent, or persistent but that lasts beyond the normal healing period.
When the disease is present but the person does not experience symptoms.
The symptoms of a disease reappear.
Cutaneous pain
Superficial pain, involving the skin and subcutaneous tissue. (Ex. Papercut, with sharp pain and burning sensation).
Somatic pain
Diffuse or scattered and originates in the tendons, ligaments, bones, blood vessels, and nerves. (Ex. Strong pressure on a bone or damage to tissue that occurs with a sprain causes deep somatic pain).
Visceral pain
Poorly localized and originates in body organs in the thorax, cranium, and abdomen. (Ex. Pain occurs as organs stretch abnormally and become distended, ischemic, or inflamed).
Referred pain
Pain originating in one part of the body but being perceived in an area distant from its point of origin.
(Ex. myocardial infarction/heart attack pain, frequently referred to the neck, shoulder, and arms(left)).
Neuropathic pain
Results from an injury to or abnormal functioning of peripheral nerves or the central nervous system.
When pain is resistant to therapy and persists despite a variety of interventions.
Phantom pain (Phantom limb pain)
Pain where receptors and nerves are clearly absent, but are somehow causing real pain for the patient.(Ex. an amputated leg)
Psychogenic pain
Pain where a physical cause for the pain cannot be identified.
The activation of pain receptors.
The peripheral nerve fibers that transmit pain.
Substances that either excite or inhibit target nerve cells, (ex. Prostaglandins, substance P, and Serotonin).
Conduction of pain sensations from the site of an injury or inflammation along clear and unclear pathways to the spinal cord and then on to higher centers.
Involves the sensory process that occurs when a stimulus for pain is present. It includes the person's interpretation of pain.
Pain threshold
The lowest intensity of a stimulus that causes the subject to recognize pain.
The process by which the sensation of pain is inhibited or modified.
Endogenous opioid chemical regulators that appear to have analgesic activity and alter pain perception.
Opioid neuromodulators; Morphine-like substances released by the body that appear to alter the perception of pain.
The endorphin having the most potent analgesic effect.
Opioids that are widespread throughout the brain and dorsal horn of the spinal cord and are believed to reduce pain sensation by inhibiting the release of substance P.
Gate control theory
Theory that explains that excitatory pain stimuli carried by small-diameter nerve fibers can be blocked by inhibiting signals carried by large-diameter nerve fibers.
Pain tolerance
The point beyond which a person is no longer willing to endure pain.
A pharmaceutical agent that relieves pain. Functions to reduce patient's perception of pain and to alter the patient's responses to discomfort.
More correct term for narcotic analgesics, since these drugs act by binding to opiate receptor sites in the central nervous system. (all controlled substances, ex. Morphine, Codeine, Meperidine, etc.).
Physical dependence
A phenomenon in which the body physiologically becomes accustomed to the opioid and suffers withdrawl symptoms if the opioid is suddenly removed or rapidly decreased.
Occurs when the body becomes accustomed to the opioid and needs a larger dose each time for pain relief.
A pattern of compulsive opioid use for means other than pain control.
Drugs typically used for other purposes but are also used to enhance the effect of opioids by providing additional pain relief.
Breakthrough pain (BTP)
A temporary flare-up of moderate to severe pain that occurs even when the patient is taking ATC medication for persistent pain.
Substances that are capable of breaking into particles called ions.
An atom or molecule carrying an electrical charge.
Ions with a positive charge. (+)
What are the major cations in body fluid?
Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Hydrogen, and Magnesium ions.
Ions with a negative charge. (-)
What are the major anions in body fluid?
Chloride, bicarbonate, and phosphate.
Liquids that hold a substance in solution.
Substances that are dissolved in a solution.
The major method of transporting body fluids. (Water shifts and balance depend heavily on this route of transport).
The concentration of particles in a solution, or its pulling power.
A solution that has about the same concentration of particles, or osmolarity, as plasma. (Between 275 and 295 mOsm/L)
Has greater osmolarity than plasma. (>275mOsm/L)
Has less osmolarity than plasma. (<275mOsm/L)
The tendency of solutes to move freely throughout a solvent.
Active Transport
A process that requires energy for the movement of substances through a cell membrane from an area of lesser solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
The passage of fluid through a permeable membrane
Hydrostatic pressure
The "pushing force" exerted by a fluid against the container wall.
Colloid osmotic pressure (Oncotic pressure)
Pressure exerted by plasma proteins on permeable membranes in the body.
Base (Alkali)
A substance containing H+ that can be liberated or released.
A substance that can accept or trap H+ ions.
The unit of measure used to describe acid-base balance. An expression of H+ ion concentration resulting acidity or alkalinity of a substance.
The condition characterized by an excess of H ions or loss of base ions (bicarbonate) in ECF in which the pH falls below 7.35.
Occurs when there is a lack of H ions or a gain of base (bicarbonate) and the pH exceeds 7.45.
A substance that prevents body fluids from becoming overly acidic or alkaline.
Excess of plasma.
Deficiency of blood plasma.
Accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space.
A sodium deficiency in ECF (serum sodium<135mEq/L) caused by a loss of sodium or gain of water.
A surplus of sodium in the ECF (serum sodium>145mEq/L) caused by excess water loss or an overall excess of sodium.
A potassium deficit in ECF (serum potassium<3.5mEq/L) and is a common electrolyte abnormality.
An excess of potassium in ECF (serum potassium >5mEq/L).
A calcium deficiency in ECF (serum calcium <8.9 mg/dL, ionized calcium <4.5mg/dL).
An excess of calcium in the ECF (serum calcium>10.1 mg/dL, ionized >5.1mg/dL).
Magnesium deficiency in the ECF (serum magnesium <1.5 mEq/L).
Magnesium excess in the ECF (serum magnesium>2.5 mEq/L).
A below normal concentration of phosphorus in the ECF (serum phosphate <2.5 mg/dL or 1.8 mEq/L).
An above-normal concentration of phosphate in the ECF (serum phosphate <4.5mg/dL or 2.6 mEq/L).
Below-normal level of Chloride in the ECF (serum chloride <96mEq/L).
Above-normal level of Chloride in the ECF (serum chloride >106mEq/L).
The lab examination to determine a person's blood type.
The process of determining compatibility between blood specimens.
A substance that causes the formation of antibodies.
A protein substance developed in the body in response to the presence of an antigen that has entered the body.
An antibody that causes a clumping of specific antigens.
Autologous transfusion
Patient's who know in advance that they will need blood therefore they donate their own blood for transfusion.
What are the functions of water in the body?
Provide a medium for transporting nutrients to cells and wastes from cells.
Provide a medium for transporting substances such as hormones, enzymes, blood platelets, and red & white blood cells throughout the body.
Facilitate cellular metabolism and proper cellular chemical functioning.
Act as a solvent for electrolytes and nonelectrolytes.
Help maintain norm. body temp.
Facilitate digestion and promote elimination.
Act as a tissue lubricant.
Tough fibrous bands of connective tissue that binds joints together and connect bones to cartilage.
Strong, flexible, inelastic fibrous bands and flattened sheets of connective tissue that attach muscle to bone.
Hard nonvascular connective tissue found in the joints as well as in the nose, ear, thorax, trachea, and larynx.
Nerve cells that conduct impulses from one part of the body to another.
Body mechanics
The application of mechanical laws to the human body, specifically in regard to structure, function, and position of the body.
Patient care ergonomics
The practice of designing equipment and work tasks to conform to the capability of the worker in relation to patient care.
The correction or prevention of disorders of body structures used in locomotion.
Negative Nitrogen balance
Condition resulting in muscle wasting and decreased physical energy for movement and work (anorexia nervosa and certain).
Isotonic exercise
Isometric exercise
Isokinetic exercise
Movement in which muscles shorten (contract) and move.
Exercise in which muscle tension occurs without a significant change in muscle length.
Exercise involving muscle contractions with resistance varying at a constant rate.
The process of bone demineralization.
Decreased muscle mass, and utilization of muscle.
A consolidation and immobilization of a joint.
Range of motion
The complete extent of movement of which a joint is normally capable.
Decreased muscle tone; synonym for hypotonicity.
Increased muscle tone.
Impaired muscle strength or weakness.
Complication resulting from extended plantar flexion.
Active exercise
Passive exercise
Joint movement activated by person.
Manual or mechanical means of moving the joints.
The position in which the person sits on the edge of the bed with legs and feet over the side of the bed.
Normal, partially steady state of muscle contraction.
Permanently contracted state of a muscle.