Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Glandular stage

-Conception until week 16

Canalicular stage

-Weeks 16 to 24

Alveolar stage

-Week 24 to birth

RR: Infant (1 - 12mo)

30 - 60 / min

RR: Toddler (12 - 36mo)

24 - 40 /min

RR: Preschooler (4 - 5y)

22 - 34 /min

RR: School aged (6 - 12y)

18 - 30 /min

RR: Adolescent (13 - 18y)

12 - 16 /min

Respiratory Distress

-Body position, mental status, VS, breath sounds, effort, skin color

-Aspiration, foreign body, infection, asthma, bronchiolitis, RAD, trauma

Respiratory Failure

-Unrecognized / untreated respiratory distress

-Failing to improve /deteriorate with treatment

-Most common cause of cardiopulmonary arrest


-Couple of days with h/o URI

-Worsens with agitation, after nap

-Comes & goes

-Improves in bathroom (steam), humidity from night air

-Sitting upright, irritable & anxious, tachypnea, tachycardia, 101-102 deg., barky cough, stridor, hoarse voice, nasal flaring, retractions

-Remain in comfortable position

-Pulse ox

-Blow by humidified O2

-Racemic epinephrine


-Lateral neck films

Racemic epinephrine


-Decrease laryngeal edema & bronchospasm

-Observe in ED >3h



-PO 0.15 - 0.6 mg/kg

-Decrease airway inflammation

-Reduces necessity of hospitalization

Epiglottitis (streptococcus pyogenes, s. pneumonia, s. aureus)

-Infection & inflammation in supraglottic area of upper airway & epiglottis

-3 - 7y

-Unrecognized / untreated: rapid edema, airway obstruction, respiratory failure

-No cough, sudden onset of fever + sore throat, tachy, shallow breathing, drooling, muffled voice, tripod position

-PPE, position, NPO, pulse ox, blow by O2, x-rays, DO NOT examine airway

Foreign bodies

-Nuts, popcorn, grapes, hot dogs, raw carrots, candy rolls, batteries, marbles, toys, pennies, dried beans

-Stridor, wheezes, coughing, cyanosis, unable to speak, drooling, hoarse voice

-Unconscious: open airway & BLS, cricothyrotomy

-Conscious: abdominal thrust / back & chest blows, ventilation assistance, O2 for respiratory distress, airway adjuncts

Otitis Media

-Short, wide, horizontal eustachian tube

-URI: blockage & congestion of tube

-Pain, pull on ears, upright, irritability, fever, URI symptoms, red bulging TM

-Decongestants, ear drops, antibiotics, antipyretics

Myringotomy tubes

-Inserted to ear to equalize pressure between middle & outer ear

-May fall out

-Keep ears clean & dry

-Ear plugs


-Sore throat, difficulty swallowing, fever, bad breath, swollen tonsils



-Bleeding postop: first 24h or 7-10d after (scabs come loose)

Respiratory Syncitial Virus (RSV)

-Virus causes respiratory infections

-Most common cause of bronchiolitis

-Various degrees of respiratory distress

-Most common hospitalization cause <1y

-Risk factor for asthma

RSV: Symptoms



-Coughing, sneezing

-Intermittent fever

-Increased coughing > tachypnea (<70 + retractions) >cyanosis > apneic spells

RSV: Diagnosis

-Nasal swabs: RVP

-Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA): detects RSV antigens

-Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) staining

RSV: Treatment

-Cool humidified O2




-Racemic epinephrine


RSV: Prevention

-palivizumab (Synagis): antibody

-15 mg / kg / mo IM

-Infants <32 wk gestation

-<2y with BPD, received treatment in 6mo of RSV season

-Severe BPD treatment for 2 RSV seasons

RSV: Nursing Care

-Isolation, respiratory & contact precautions

-Respiratory therapy: O2, humidity

-Monitor: CRM, pulse ox

-Maintain airway: elevate HOB


-Rest & hydration

-Relieve anxiety

RSV: When to contact PCP

-Increased RR

-Increased effort of breathing

-No improvement

-Not feeding or sleeping


RSV: Parent Teaching

-Bulb syringe

-Adequate hydration




-Chronic inflammatory disorder of airways

-Recurrent episodes of: wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, cough

Asthma: Risk Factors

-Maternal history

-LBW or smaller airways

-Patient / family history of allergy or asthma

-Second hand smoke

-Viral respiratory infections

Asthma: Patterns

-Early response: symptoms last about an hour & resolve

-Late response: 6-8h after early response, reoccurrence of symptoms

Asthma: Manifestations

-Respiratory problems worse at night

-Chest tightness

-SOB w/w/o exertion

-Allergen or emotional response

-Increased work of breathing

-Prolonged expiration


-Dry cough

-NO wheezing: severe respiratory distress

Asthma: Nursing Care


-Reverse hypoxia


-Monitor: pulse ox, cardiac



-IV therapy

Asthma: Longterm control

-Inhaled corticosteroids

-Long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists

-Combos: Symbicort, Advair

-Leukotriene blockers: Montelukast

Asthma: Rescue medications

-Short-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists: albuterol (Ventolin)

-Anticholinergic: ipratropium bromide (Atrovent)

-Mast cell inhibitors: cromolyn sodium

-Systemic corticosteroids: prednisone


-Magnesium sulfate: IV, unresponsive to others

Asthma: Nursing care

-Physical characteristics R/T chronic involvement


-Education: inhaled meds, triggers & allergens to avoid, written action plan


-Lung tissue inflammation > fluid exudate & fibrin deposits in lungs

Pneumonia: Viral causes





-Measles, rubella


Atypical pneumonia

-Mycoplasma, chlamydia

-Community-acquired pneumonias


Pneumonia: Bacterial

-Group B streptococci: newborn aspiration during delivery

-Staph. aureus, strep. pneumoniae: <3y

-Strep. pneumoniae, mycoplasma pneumoniae: >3y

Pneumonia: Manifestations

-Fever (chills), cough, tachypnea

-Crackles, retractions, nasal flaring

-Malaise, lethargy, decreased appetite

-Pallor or cyanosis

-Abdominal pain

Pneumonia: Nursing care


-Assessment: breath sounds, RR & rhythm, color, VS, degree of restlessness

-Airway & breathing support

-Turn q2h, assist with coughing

-Pulse ox

-Meds: antipyretics, antibiotics, analgesics



Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)

-Acute lung injury that is complication of longterm ventilator assistance & high O2 concentrations


-Unable to handle secretions secondary to ciliary inhibition

-Epithelial damage > thick, fibrotic alveolar walls

BPD: Consequences

-Developmental delay

-Growth retardation

-Continuing airway obstruction

BPD: Progression

-Immature lung (unable to produce surfactant) > respiratory failure

-Mechanical ventilation >barotrauma >inflammation >O2 toxicity >fibrosis >bronchiole edema >cellular damage

BPD: Treatment

-Assess & treat hypoxia

-Bronchodilators, dexamethasone, diuretics, O2

-High calorie meals: increased O2 consumption >increased caloric needs

-Supplemental O2 & humidity

-Chest PT

-Rest & normal development

BPD: Nursing Care

-Rest during feedings

-Increased caloric feedings

-Adequate O2

-Administer diuretics, bronchodilators, inhaled steroids

-Monitor for & prevent infection


-Respiratory droplets

-Incubation period: 7 - 10d

-Tdap vaccine substitutes for Td booster

Pertussis: Catarrhal Stage

-Gradual onset

-Runny nose, mild cough, fever <101 deg.

-Cough increasing severity over 1-2wk

Pertussis: Paroxysmal Stage

-Lasts 1-6wk

-Cough bursts 15 episodes / day: ad noc (thick mucus in tracheobronchial tree)


-Loud whooping noises when inhaling

-Inhalation lengthened


Pertussis: Convalescent Stage

-Gradual recover

-Over 2-3wk

-Treat patients & close contacts with erythromycin

-Droplet precuations

Cystic Fibrosis

-Inherited disease of mucus and sweat glands

-Affects: lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, sinuses, & sex organs

-CF transmembrance conductance regulator (CFTR): transmission

-Mucus thick & sticky

CF: Manifestations

-Meconium ileus: lack of pancreatic enzymes; abdominal distention, vomiting, failure to defecate, rapid dehydration

-GI: large, bulky, loose, frothy, foul stools (malabsorption); voracious appetite s weight gain; loss of appetite (later); weight loss; failure to grow; anemia

CF: Pulmonary Manifestations

-Initial signs: wheezy, dry, non-productive cough

-Eventually: increased dyspnea, paroxysmal cough

-Progressively: barrel-shaped chest, cyanosis, clubbing, repeated episodes of bronchitis & bronchopneumonia

CF: Diagnosis

-Meconium ileus


-Recurrent respiratory infections

-Pilocarpine iontophoresis (sweat test)

CF: Treatment


-Chest PT

-Flutter mucus clearance device



-Tune ups

-Complication treatment

-Lung transplant

CF: GI & Nutritional therapy

-Zantac / acid suppression med

-Isotonic fluid lavage: distal intestinal obstruction

-Hyperosmolar enemas: infants c meconium ileus

-120 - 150% caloric RDA

-200% protein RDA, moderate fate

-Pancreatic enzyme supplements

CF: Medications


-Aerosol DNAs

-Corticosteroids & NSAIDS

-Pancreatic enzymes

-Multivitamins & fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E), iron

-Ursodeoxycholate: delay liver progression & portal HTN

-Lactulose: prevents distal intestinal obstruction

-Treat DM

-Annual flu vaccine

CF: Nursing care

-Respiratory & GI assessment

-Newborn: feeding & stooling patterns

-Treat infections aggressively: increased lung damage

-Nutritional support

-CPT: pulmonary hygiene 2-4x/d

-Assist with mechanical vest


-Exercise + rest

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

-Sudden unexplained death of healthy baby

-Leading COD for >1wk to <1y

-Postmortum exam diagnosis

-Intrathoracic petechiae, pulmonary edema

SIDS: Risk Factors

-Prematurity, seizure disorders, family history of SIDS, apnea

-Lower socioeconomic class



SIDS: Prevention

-Apnea assessment in newborns

-Apnea monitoring with home teaching

-BLS for caregivers

-"Back to Sleep"

SIDS: Treatment

-Offer momentos: bereavement boxes

-Contact ME

-Family support

-Allow family to remain during CPR efforts

-Give info for support groups