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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


fold in the brain


outer part of fold in the brain




in front of


towards the nose




towards the tail



saggital cut

between hemispheres

coronal cut

like loaf of bread

horizontal cut

cut horizontally

CNS is composed of


Spinal chord

Main job of spinal chord

get signals from brain to periphery of body

Brain is composed of







the cerebrum is

part of the brain

most of the outer layer of brain (cortices)

made of cortex + some anatomically newer parts

the diencephalon is

part of the brain



the midbrain is

part of the brain

made up of nuclei --> mostly widely projecting transmitter systems

the pons is

part of the brain stem

the cerebellum is

part of the brain

"second brain"

the medulla is

part of the brain

lowest part of the brain stem

continuous with spinal chord

the spine is

part of the PNS

stacked vertebrae (contain and protect spinal chord)

in between each vertebra is a spinal nerve

a spinal nerve is

part of the PNS

leaves spinal chord to innervate part of the body

there is a relationship between the location of a spinal nerve in the spine and what it innervates

how does the thickness of the spinal chord vary

thicker higher up (more axons ascending and descending to feed info to brain)

thinner lower down (branching out of spinal nerves)

at Cauda Equina (l2&l3) --> no more spinal chord (less likely to hit nerves if things are injected (epidural))

Cervical nerves are essential for what

breathing and staying alive in general

Transmission of memory

perifery--> spinal chord--> hind brain --> diencephalon --> cortex --(cleaning of information)--> diencephalon --> hind brain --> spinal chord --> periphery

frontal lobe

motor behaviour

parietal lobe

feeling + touch --> processing sensory inputs

occipital lobe


temporal lobe


some vision

why is the brain folded?

allows for maximum brain tissue in limited area

how is the spinal chord protected?

spinal chord surrounded by 2-3 layers of meninges surrounded by vertebrae

spinal nerves leave spinal chord in joints between vertebrae

white matter

myelinated axons travelling from brain stem to PNS

grey matter

local unmyelinated neurons

short distance communication

dorsal and ventral horns

ratio of grey matter to white matter in spinal chord

higher up spinal chord == more white matter

lower down spinal chord == less white matter

location of white and grey matter in spinal chord

white matter is on the outside and grey matter on the inside

flow of information in spinal chord

sensory neuron


dorsal horn and root

| |

dorsal column interneuron (grey | matter)

| |

brain (medulla) motor neuron


same neuron



is the spinal chord only a cable?


has a lot of behaviour and patterns within it

grey matter in vertebrae

divided into lamina

X= pain

IX = motor neurons

lateral column in vertebrae

motor axon from cortex = voluntary movement

dorsal column in vertebrae

highway of ascending neurons

ventral column in vertebrae

motor axons from brain stem = posture and balance

dorsal root entry zone in vertebrae

entry of sensory neurons from PNS

3 types of cranial nerves of the brain stem

sensory cranial nerves

motor cranial nerves

mixed cranial nerves

involvement of cranial nerves of the brain stem

transmitting sensory information

movement+ sensation of head and neck

control + sensation from internal organs

other important facts about the brainstem

- whole thorax controlled by the brain stem

- spinal chord continuous with medulla

- brainstem important for staying alive + sleep + wakefulness

oculomotor nerve

controls eye

trigerminal nerve

controls face muscles

vestibulocochlear nerve

controls balance

vagus nerve

controls sensation of the gut and thorax


inside sylvian fissure

controls sense of taste

controls emotions like disgust

olfactory bulb location

it is on top of the nose

pons meaning

the word means bridge in latin

hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus role

plays a role in cognition

cingulate gyrus

overlies corpus callosum

limbic function

emotional processing

regulation of wants and desires


connects brain and periphery for hormone secretion

which parts of the brain connect both hemispheres together

posterior commissure

corpus callosum

anterior commissure (origin of map of brain)


relay station

gateway to the cortex

--> info from sensory systems to thalamus to cortes

--> cortex to thalamus to deep brain structures

the caudate nucleus and the putamen are responsible for?

they control movement

location of grey and white matter in the brain

grey matter is around white matter

--> opposite of spinal chord

What are the meninges?

protective layers covering the surface of brain and spinal chord. They provide a division between inside and outside and are composed of three layers

What are the 3 layers of meninges?

Dura Matter --> hard layer for physical protection (tough leather)

Arachnoid layer --> blood supply

Pia matter --> very soft + closest to the surface

Possible problems to the meninges

subdural pimatona--> bleeding in meninges, causes pressure on brain, serious problem

meningitis --> inflamed meninges , causes pressure on the brain, serious problem

Use and location of CSF

between brain and meninges

in vetricals + around spinal chord

helps brain float

extra protective layer

CSF circulation

choroid plexus

lateral ventricles

3rd ventricle

4th ventricle

around brain and spinal chord

is metabolized

choroid plexus

creates CSF

constant flow towards 3rd and 4th ventricle

lateral ventrical

2 per brain

"holes" filled with CSF

cerebral aqueduct

narrow tube in which CSF flows


aqueduct blocked

no stopping of CSF creation

pressure builds up & ventricles get pushed


towards the back


towards the front of body (stomach)


towards the center


towards the side

what is the purpose of the spinal chord

relaying information from the brain to the body and vice versa