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472 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Grip width

The distance between the hands when placed on a bar.

Health appraisal

Process to screen a client for risk factors and symptoms of chronic cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, and orhopedic diseases in order to optimize safety during exercise testing and participation.

Heart rate reserve (HRR)

The difference between a client's maximal heart rate and his or her resting heart rate (ex: APMHR-RHR)


A systolic blood pressure of > (equal to or greater than) 140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure of (equal to or greater than) 90 mmHg (or both)


An increase in cross-sectional area of the muscle fiber


Blood glucose level of < (equal to or less than) 65 mg/dl

Informed consent

A protective legal document that informs the client of any inherent risks associated with fitness testing and participation in an exercise program


Stimulation of a muscle cell by a motor nerve


The demand or difficulty of an exercise session that determines exercise duration and training frequency

Intermittent Exercise

Several short bouts of exercise interspersed with rest periods.


Dynamic muscle activity in which a joint moves through a range of motion at a constant veloctiy.

Isometric Muscle Action

Action that occurs when a muscle generates a force against a resistance but does not overcome it, so that no movement takes place.

Karvonen Forumla

A method to determine exercise heart rate that takes into consideration a client's age and resting heart rate.


Exercises for the msucles of the pelvic floor that involve alternatley tightening and relaxing the pelvic regoin muscle groups.


High levels of ketones in the bloodstream caused by incomplete breakdown of fatty acids.


Assessment of motion with regard to forces and force-related measures.

Krebs cycle

A series of reactions used to produce ATP, indirectly, that utilize carbohydrate, fat, or protein as an energy source after their modification to acetly-CoA.


An end product of glycolysis; most common marker of increased anaerobic metabolism during exercise.

Lactate threshold (LT)

The exercise intensity at which blood lactate begins an abrupt increase above the baseline concentration.

Legal Duty

An obligation recognized by the law requiring a person to conform to certain conduct that reflects the standard case.


A formal process by which a state-sanctioned licensing body grants permission to certain professionals the right to offer specified services.


The movement of the bar from the supports of a bench or rack to a position in which the client can begin the exercise

Linear Motion

Motion along a straight or curved line.


The amount of weight assigned to an exercise set.

Long-term goal

A strategy of sequencing and combining short-term goals to reach the client's primary outcome.

Low-calorie diet (LCD)

A calorie-reduced yet mutrient-dense diet to achieve a calorie deficit.

Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)

Proteins that transport primarily cholesterol; when elevated, these contribute to an increased incidence of coronary artery disease (LDL=BAD)


The largest periodization division, typically composed of two or more mesocycles.

Marfan Syndrome

Genetic disorder of the connective tissue; symptoms include irregular and unsteady gait, tall lean body type with long extremities including fingers and toes, abnormal joint flexibility, flat feet, stooped shoulders, and dislocation of the optic lens. Complications include a weakened aorta, which may rupture if not treated.

Maximal heat rate (MHR)

The actual maximum heart rate

Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)

The highest capacity for oxygen consumption or utilization by the body during maximal physical exertion; AKA: aerobic capacity, maximal aerobic power, maximal oxygen consumption, or VO2max and functional capactiy.

Mean Arterial pressure

The average blood pressure throughout the cardiac cycle

ex: [(SBP-DBP) / 3] + DBP

Mechanical advantage

The ratio of the legth of the moment arm through which a muscular force acts to the length of a moment arm through which a resistive force acts.

Mechanical energy

Capacity or ability to do mehanical work

Medical clearance

Approval by a physician indicating that the client is fit for exercise


A division of periodized program that lasts several weeks to a few months

Metabolic Equivalent (MET)

Resting oxygen uptake, generally estimated to be 3.5 ml O2 x kg(exponent -1) x min(exponent -1)

Metabolic syndrome

Any combination of three or more of the following unhealthy conditions: abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDLs, hypertension, and high fasting glucose.


A division of a periodized program that lasts from one to four weeks and can include daily an weekly training variations.


Specialized cellular organelles where the reations of aerobic metabolism occur.


The specific type of exercise or activity that will be performed during an exercise session

Moment arm

Perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation to the line of force action

Moment of force

The tendency of a force to rotate an object about a fulcrum

AKA: torque


Property of a moving body that is determine by the product of its mass and velocity


A psychological construct that influences behavior, commitment, attitude, and the desire to exercise

Motor unit

A motor nerve and all the muscle fibers it innervates

Multijoint exercise

An exercise that involves movement at two or more primary joints

Multiple sclerosis

An immune-mediated (autoimmune) disorder that is characterized by inflammation and progressive degeneration of nervous tissue

Muscle fiber

The structural unit of muscle

AKA: Muscle cell

Muscle Spindle

Sensory organ within muscle fibers that relays sensory information about length and speed of stretch to the central nervous system

Muscular endurance training

A resistance training program designed to target the ability of a muscle or muscle group to contract repeatedly over and extended time period.

AKA: strength endurance training

Myocardial Infarction

A result of the death of heart tissue due to an occluded blood supply

AKA: heart attack


Inflammation of the heart muscle


The elements of a muscle fiber that primarily consist of actin (thin) and myosin (thick)


The two primary proteins in a myofibril

(actin/thin and myosin/thick)


One of the two primary myofilaments (myosin=thick); binds with the actin (thin) filament to cause a muscle action

Myotatic (stretch) reflex

An activation of previously stretched extrafusal muscle fibers that occurs in response to their being stretched


The failure to conform one's conduct to a generally accepted standard or the failure to act as a reasonably prudent person would act under the circumstances

Neutral Grip

A grip in which the palm faces in and the knuckles point out to the side, is in a handshake


Having normal blood pressure

Norm-referenced standard

A method to compare data that involves comparing the performance of a client against the performance of others in the same category (ex: percentile scores)

Onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA)

The point at which blood lactate concentrations reach point at which blood lactate concentrations reach 4mmol/L during exercise of increasing intensity.

Open grip

A grip in which the thumb is not wrapped around the bar but instead is placed next to the index finger

AKA: False grip

Open Kinetic chain

A movement during which the most distal body part is free to move; often occurs with lower (or upper) body movements with the feet (or hands) off the floor and typically involves pushing or pulling against a machine


A disorder characterized by the demineralization of bone tissue that results in a decreased bone mineral density

Outcome goal

A goal that is gauged by social comparison (the desire to beat an opponent)

Overhand grip

A grip in which the hand grasps the bar with the palm down and the knuckles up.


A training stress or intensity greater than what a client is used to


Short-term exercise training, without sufficient recuperation, that exceeds an individual's capacity


A walking or running gait in which the foot hits too far in front of the body's center of gravity, causing a braking effect.


A condition in which a client trains too much or rests too little, or both, resulting in diminished exercise capacity, injury, or illness.

Oxidative System

The group of chemical reactions used to produce ATP via aerobic means with a variety of energy sources

Oxygen debt

The oxygen uptake above resting values used to restore the body to the preexercise condition

AKA: Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)

Oxygen deficit

The difference between the amount of oxygen required for exercise and the amount of oxygen actually consumed during exercise

Pace/tempo training

A type of training program that involves an exercise intensity at the lactate threshold.


Injury to thoracic segments T-2 to T-12 causing impairment in the trunk, legs, pelvic organs, or a combination of these.

PAR-Q (Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire)

An assessment tool to initially screen apparently healthy clients who want to engage in low-intensity exercise and identify clients who require additional medical screening

Passive warm-up

A type of warm-up that involves receiving external warmth or tissue manipulation (ex: hot shower, heating pad, or massage)

Pennation angle

The angle between the direction of the muscle fibers and an imaginary line between the muscle's origin and its insertion

Percent of APMHR method

A method to determine exercise heart rate that takes into consideration a client's age


Percentage of scorers at or below the client's score

Performance goal

A goal that is gauged by a self-referenced personal performance standard (ex: client's desire to beat his/her own record)


The connective tissue encasing groups of muscle fibers (fascicles)


The systematic process of planned variations in a resistance training program over a training cycle

Phosphagen system

The simplest set of chemical reactions needed to produce ATP


The point about which a lever pivots.

AKA: Fulcrum


The "injured" person who brings a suit or complaint into a court of law


The tendency of a muscle to assume a new and greater length after a passive stretch even after the load is removed

Postictal state

The period immediately following a seizure


The increase in activity of the agonist muscle caused by the reflexive response of the muscle spindles and the release of stored elastic energy


The rate of performing work, often expressed as either work divided by time or force times velocity

Power (or explosive) exercise

A structural core exercise that is purposely performed very quickly


Period of time before the development of secondary sex characteristics, corresponding roughly to the ages 6 to 11 years in girls and 6 to 13 years in boys


Hypertension that is induced by pregnancy


An activity that an injured client can perform under the supervision of a qualified personal trainer and according to client limitations and symptom reproduction

Process goal

A goal that is gauged by the amount or quality of effort during an activity (ex: the desire to demonstrate perfect exercise technique)

Program design variable

An aspect of an exercise program that, when manipulated properly, leads to a safe, effective, and goal-specific outcome


The gradual and consisten increase in the intensity of an exercise program

Pronated grip

A grip in which the hand grasps the bar with the palm down and the knuckles up

AKA: Overhand grip


Lying facedown

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

A type of stretching that involves a partner and both passive movement and active (concentric and isometric) muscle actions

Proximate cause

A cause that immediately precedes and produces an effect


Any act, object, or event that decreases the likelihood of future target behavior (when the punishment follows that behavior)


A precursor or lactate during the final steps of glycolysis


Injury between the highest thoracic (T-1) and highest cervical (C-1) segments of the spine resulting in impairment of the arms, trunk, legs, and pelvic organs

Rate coding

The control of the motor unit firing rate (ex: the number of action potentials per unit of time)

Rate-limiting step

The slowest reaction in a series of reactions

Rate-pressure product

An estimation of the work of the heart (ex: double product; HR x SBP)

Rating of perceived exertion (RPE)

A self-rating system that accounts for all of the body's responses to a particular exercise intensity


The process in which tasks that require more force involve the activation of more motor units

Rectilinear Motion

Motion along a straight line


Any act, object, or event that increases the likelehood of future target behavior (when the reinforcement follows the target behavior)


An expression of the repeatability of a test or the consistency of repeated tests

Repetition maximum (RM)

The greatest amount of weight that can be lifted with proper technique for a specific number of repetitions

Repetition maximum zone (RM target zone)

A range of repetitions that the client attempts to perform using the heaviest weight he/she can

Repetitions (or reps)

The number of times a movment or an exercise is completed

Resisted sprinting

A method to increase stride length and speed-strength by increasing the client's ground force production during the support phase.

Respiratory exchange ratio (RER)

The ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide expired to the volume of oxygen consumed as measured at the mouth

Resting heart rate (RHR)

The heart rate associated with the client's resting metabolic rate (measure of calories required to maintain normal metabolism)

Rest interval

The time interval between two sets

Resting metabolic rate (RMR)

A measure of the calories required for maintaining normal metabolism

Risk management

A facet of the emergency plan designed to decrease an control the risk of injury from client participation an the risk of liability exposure. Risk management may involve internal or external audits to identify potential problems, actions taken to improve the safe delivery of services and reduce the chances of untoward events and potential lawsuits

Risk stratification

A method to initially classify clients as being low, moderate, or high risk for coronary, peripheral vascular, or metabolic disease

Rotational motion

The product of the force exerted on an object and the distance the object rotates

Safety space cushion

The recommended area between each piece of equipment to enhance traffic flow in, out of, and around the exercise facility

Sagittal plane

A vertical plane that divides the body or organs into left and right portions


The segment of a myofibril between two adjacent Z-lines (bands), representing the functional unit of skeletal muscle


Muscle loss due to aging

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Highly specialized network system in a muscle fiber that stores calcium ions

Scope of practice

Legal boundaries that determine the extent of a personal trainer's professional duties

Second-class lever

A lever in which the applied and resistive forces act on the same side of the fulcrum, but with the applied force acting through a moment arm that is longer than that of the resistive force


An uncontrolled electrical discharge within any part of the brain, causing physical or mental symptoms that may or may not be associated with convulsions


A desire to participate in an activity for self-fulfillment as opposed to a desire to meet the expectations of others


A perceived self-confidence in one's own ability to perform specific actions (ex: reach a short-term goal) that lead to a successful outcome


A client's "internal voice"

Series elastic component (SEC)

The structures that, when stretched, have the ability to store energy that may be released upon an immediate concentric muscle action


A group of repetitions that are performed consecutively

Short-term goal

An attainable step that brings the client closer to reaching a long-term goal

Single-joint exercise

An exercise that involves movement at only one primary joint

Size principle

The recruitment of larger and more motor units as a response to an increased force requirement


A state of increased tonus of a muscle characterized by heightened deep tendon reflexes


A strategy to train a client in a certain way to produce a particular change or result

Specific warm-up

A type of warm-up in which movements are performed that mimic the sport or activity (ex: slow jogging before running or lifting light loads on the bench press before lifting training loads)


The ability to maintain running speed over an extended duration (typically longer than 6 seconds)


The application or development of maximum force at high velocities


Measurement of blood pressure using an inflatable air bladder-containing cuff and stethoscope to auscultate the Korotkoff sounds

Split routine

An exercise routine in which different muscle groups are trained on diferent days or training sessions


Injury to a ligament

Sprint-assisted training

A method to increase stride frequency by having the client run at speeds greater than he/she is able to independently achieve

Stage or readiness

The degree or extent to which a client is ready to begin an exercise program

Standard error of measurement

The difference between a person's observed score- what the result was- and that person's true score, a theoretically errorless score

Standard or care

A set of criteria for the apporpriate duties of a personal trainer; much like scope of practice (legal boundaries that determine the extent of a perosnal trainer's professional duties)

State anxiety

The actual experience of anxiety, characterized by feelings of apprehension or nervousness, that is accompanied by an increased physiological arousal

Static stretching

Stretching performed at a slow constant speed, with the end position held for 30 seconds. A static stretch includes the relaxation and simultaneous lengthening of the stretched muscle

Status epilepticus

A seizure lasting more than 30 minutes or a seizure that occurs soon after the transition from the eccentric to the concentric phase


Injury to a muscle

Stretch reflex

The immediate contraction of a muscle caused by a rapid stretch of that muscle

Stretch-shortening cycle (SSC)

The series of three phases that explains the mechanical and neurophysiological reactions to a plyometric movement

Stride frequency

The number of steps per minute

Stride length

The distance covered with each step

Stroke volume

The quantity of blood ejected by the left ventricle expressed in milliliters of blood per beat

Structural exercise

An exercise that loads the trunk (vertebral column) and places stress on the lower back


Partial displacement of the joint surfaces

Sudden cardiac death

Death occuring unexpectedly and instantaneously or within 1 hour of the onset of symptoms in a patient with or without known preexisting heart disease

Supinted grip

A grip in which the hand grasps the bar with the palm up and the knuckles down


Lying down on the back, facing up

SWOT analysis

A strategic method of anaylsis consisting of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats

Sympathetic nervous system

A part of the nervous system that, when stimulated, speeds up various systems of the body (increases heart rate)

Systolic Blood pressure

The pressure exerted against the arterial walls as blood is forcefully ejected during ventricular contraction (systole)


A resting heart rate of more than 100 beats/min

Target behavior

A behavior that is the focus for change or improvement; AKA: Operant

Target heart rate range (THRR)

The minimum and maximum heart rates per unit of time that are assigned for an aerobic exercise session


Inflammation of a tendon

Test Protocol

Procedures required for adminstering a reliable test

Test-retest method

A strategy to promote reliability by repeating a test with the same individual or group


Injury between the highest thoracic (T-1) and highest cervical (C-1) segments of the spine resulting in impairment of the arms, trunk, legs, and pelvic organs

Therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC)

A lifestyle modification that includes diet, physical activity, and weight loss.

Thermic effect of food

An increase in energy expenditure above resting metabolic rate, caused by the digestion and assimilation of food

Third-class lever

A lever in which the applied and resistive forces act on the same side of the fulcrum, but with the resistive force acting through a moment arm that is longer than that of the applied force

Thrombotic occlusion

Blockage due to a blood clot

Tidal volume

The amount of air moved during inhalation or exhalation with each breath


The tendency of a force to rotate an object about a fulcrum


A breach of legal duty other than a breach of contract that results in a civil wrong or injury; may be the foundation for a civil suit to collect damages

Total peripheral resistance

The impedance of blood flow caused by exercise, nervous stimulation, metabolism, and environmental stress

Trait anxiety

The potential perception or probability that a certain situation will cause anxiety

Transverse Plane

A horizontal plane that divides the body or organs into upper and lower portions

Trial Load

An estimated load that is based on a percent of the client's body weight


A group of fatty compounds that circulate in the bloodstream; the predominate storage form of fat


A protein, attached to actin (thin), that prevents actin from binding to the myosin (thick) cross-bridges


A protein, attached to tropomyosin, that when activated shifts the tropomyosin to allow the actin (thin) to bind to the myosin (thick) cross-bridges

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

A disease in which the pancreatic beta cells are destroyed by an autoimmune process leading to absolute insulin deficiency; formerly known as Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

A disease resulting in insulin resistance in peripheral tissues and an insulin production deficit of the pancreatic beta cells; formerly known as Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)

Type 1 muscle fiber

A type of muscle fiber characterized by a slow rate of action and relaxation, high aerobic metabolic activity, and high fatigue resistance. AKA: Slow oxidative or Slow-twitch fiber

Type IIa muscle fiber

A type of muscle fiber characterized by a fast rate of action and relaxation, moderate aerobic and high glycolytic metabolic activity, and moderate fatigue resistance. AKA: Fast oxidative glycolytic fiber

Type IIx muscle fiber

A type of muscle fiber characterized by a fast rate of action and relaxation, high glycolytic metabolic activity, and low fatigue resistance. AKA: Fast glycolytic fiber

Underhand grip

A grip in which the hand grasps the bar with the palm up and the knuckles down.

AKA: Supinated grip


A walking or running gait in which the foot takes too short a stride, causing wasted energy


Referring to a type of periodized training program that involves within-the-week or microcycle vacillations of training load and volume

User space

The recommended area that a client needs to perform an exercise safely


The degree to which a test or test item measures what it is supposed to measure

Valsalva Maneuver

The act of breath-holding that contributes to maintaining intra-abdominal pressure; the client tries to exhale against a "closed throat"


A purposeful change of the program design variable assignments to expose a client to new or different training stressors

Venous return

The return of the blood to the right atrium from the body (periphery)


A lower chamber of the heart that functions to pump blood from the heart (right ventricle pumps to the lungs, left ventricle pumps to the body)

Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs)

Proteins that transport primarily triglycerides; when elevated, these contribute to an increased incidence of coronary artery disease


The ablility of the brain to draw and recall mental images that can create positive emotional responses and improve motivation


The total amount of weight lifted in a training session (ex: total repetitions x the weight lifted per repetition) OR the total number of repetitions completed in a training session (ex: the number of repetitions performed in each set x the number of sets)


A contract that serves as evidence that the injured client waived her right to sue for negligence

Wolff's law

Law stating that bone density will increase in response to mechanical stress


The product of the force exerted on an object and the distance the object moves (ex: force x distance)

Work-to-rest ratio

The relationship between the duration of the exercise interval and that of the recovery interval

Muscle contraction (or Muscle action)
Are when muscles generate force when activated
Three types of muscle:
Smooth, Cardiac, and Skeletal
Plasma membrane that surrounds each muscle fiber. Sarcolemma encloses the contents of the cell (muscle fiber) and regulates the passage of materials (like glucose) in and out of the cell, and receives and conducts stimuli (in the form of electrical impulses/action potentials)
Cyctoplasm (or Sarcoplasm in muscle)
Watery solution that contains the cell's energy sources such as Adenosinetriphosphate (ATP), phosphocreatine, glycogen, and fat droplets.
Mitochondria (singular = mitochondrion)
Sites of aerobic ATP production within the cell (very important for aerobic exercise performance)
Transverse tubules (or T–tubules)
Channels that form from openings in the sarcolemma of the muscle cell; for when sacroplasmic reticulum releases calcium into the sarcoplasm of the cell to pass action potentials through.
Muscle fiber
A cell that is specialized to contract and generate force (tension)
Neuromuscular junction
Specialized region where communication between the nervous and muscle systems occur. Each muscle fiber has a single neuromuscular junction located at the center length of the cell
Structures of the neuromuscular junction
1. Axon terminal 2. Motor endplate (specialized region of the muscle cell membrane) 3. Synaptic Cleft/Neuromuscular Cleft (space between the axon terminal and motor endplate
Synaptic Vesicles
Structure that stores ACh in the axon terminal of the neuron while the neuron is at rest
Sliding Filament Theory
When a muscle shorten or lengthens because the actin (thin) and myosin (thick) filaments slide past each other, without the filaments themselves changing length
Delayed–Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)
Experience of muscle pain and discomfort 24 to 48 hours after beginning an exercise program or performing novel exercises. Results from combo of connective and muscle tissue damage followed by inflammatory reaction that activates pain receptors (primarily caused by eccentric muscle actions and resulting in micro–tears in connective an muscle tissue)
Oxidative Capacity
A biochemical property of muscle fibers that's ability to produce ATP aerobically
Oxidative Fibers
Fibers that have large and numberous mitchondria, surrounded by ample supply of capillaries (to deliver blood and oxygen), and also contain large amounts of myoglobin
Specific tension
Fibers that differ in the amount of force they produce relative to their size
Central nervous system consists:
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
Functions to relay nerve impulses from the CNS to the periphery (skeletal muscles) or from the periphery back to the CNS
Nervous system also contains:
Somatic (Voluntary, like muscles) and Autonomic (Involuntary, like organs) systems
Motor neurons (Efferent neurons)
Neurons that conduct impulses from the CNS to the muscles, it is these motor signals that cause skeletal muscles to contract
Sensory neurons (Afferent neurons)
Neurons responsible for carrying impulses from the Periphery toward the CNS; relays info such as tension, stretch, movement, and pain
Site of communication between two neurons or a neuron and a gland or muscle cell
Motor unit recruitment
Method that the nervous system uses to vary the number of motor units, and thus muscle fibers, that are activated.
Bones are the primary:
Storage site for minerals (calcium and phosphorus), location for blood cell formation, and protect internal organs and spinal cord
Constant undergoing process of bones; Osteoclasts/breakdown and Osteoblasts/build–up or stimulate synthesis (growth)
Connect muscle to bone (formed from inelastic protein collagen)
Connect bone to bone (formed from elastin protein collagen)
Cardiorespiratory system
Composed of Cardiovascular and Respiratory system
Cardiovasular system
Transports nutrients and removes metabolic waste products while helping to maintain the environment for all the body's functions; the blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissures for use in cellular metabolism and transports carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs, where it is removed from the the body
Summary of blood flow
The circulation of the heart and lungs (central circulation) and that of the rest of the body (peripheral circulation) from a single closed–circuit system with two components: an arterial system, which carries blood away from the heart, and a venous system, which returns blood toward the heart
Circulation system
Composed of arteries, carry blood away from the heart toward the tissues an organs, an veins, which carry blood from the tissues and organs back to the heart (exception of pulmonary veins– carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart)
Periods of Relaxation in the cardiac cycle (heart beats; when blood fills the heart)
Periods of Contraction in the cardiac cycle (heart beats; when blood leaves the heart)
Frank–Starling Principle (frank–starling mechanism)
Principle that indicates that the more the left ventricle is stretched, the more forceful the contraction and this the greater volume of blood leaving the ventricle (principle is based on the length–tension relationship)
Respiratory System
Basic exhange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Nasal cavities perform three functions:
Warming, Humidifying, and Purifying the air
Structures of the respiratory system:
Air passes through the nose, then distributed through the lungs via the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. Trachea is further divided into left and right bronchi (each division after is an additional generation; approximately 23 generations), finally ending with the alveoli where gas exchange occurs
Active process (in respiratory system) that involves the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles; during exercise the scalene, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis major and minor are used
(at rest) is an Passive response and involves no muscles because the external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm relax, results in increased presuure in the lungs and exhalation of air; during exercise the internal intercostal and abdominal muscles are used
Method of using either clinical or research settings to examine static lung volumes.
The movement of gas (such as oxygen or carbon dioxide) across a cell membrane; occurs when there is a concentration gradient, that is, a greater concentration of a gas on one side of the membrane (gas moves from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration)
Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the pulmonary blood, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli
The body is in a constant state of anabolism and catabolism, or the total of all the catabolic and anabolic reactions in the body
Three energy systems are:
Phosphagen system (Anaerobic process), Glycolysis (Fast & Slow Glycolysis; both Anaerobic), and Oxidative system (Aerobic process)
Characteristics of Phosphagen system
ATP for short–term, high–intensity activities (ex: jumping or sprinting; but it also active at the start of all types of exercise regardless of intensity)
Characteristics of Glycolysis
ATP for high–intensity muscular activity lasting up to 2 minutes, intermittent exercise (half court basketball, small sided soccer)
Characteristics of Oxidative (aerobic) systems
ATP at rest and during aerobic activities, uses primarily carbs and fats as substrates (ex: walking, water aerobics, yoga)
Hormone–sensitive lipase
This enzyme releases free fatty acids from the fat cells into the blood (where they can circulate and enter muscle fibers), also how triglycerides that are stored in fat cells are broken down
Gollnick, Bayly, and Hodgson reported:
Blood lactate concentrations normally return to preexercise values within an hour after activity. Light activity during postexercise period has been shown to increase lactate clearance rates. Peak blood lactate concentrations occur 5 mins after exercise (a delay from the time required to transport lactate from the tissue to the blood)
Energy Substrates
Molecules that provide starting materials for bioenergetic reactions, including phosphagens (ATP an creatine phosphate), glucose, glycogen, lactate, free fatty acids, and amino acids.
Both unit of mass (quantity of matter, or kgm) and a unit of force (kg plates in a weight room, or kgf)
Internal forces
Forces acting inside the body (muscle, tendon, ligament)
External forces
Forces acting outside the body (gravity, friction, air resistance)
Newton (N)
Standard SI unit of force, traditional system measures in pounds (lb)

1 lb = 4.45 N
7 Force related factors:
Magnitude (how much force is produced or applied), Location(where on the body or structure the force is applied), Direction (where the force is directed), Duration (during a single force application, how long the force is applied), Frequency (how many times the force is applied in a given time period), Variability (if the magnitude of force is constant or changing over the application period), Rate (how quickly the force is produced or applied)
Newtons three laws of motion:
1. A body at rest or in motion tends to remain in motion unless acted upon by an outside force
2. A net force acting on a body produces an acceleration proportional to the force (force equals mass times acceleration)
3. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Ground reaction force
When ground euqally and oppositely reacts against the runner's foot; the magnitude and direction of the ground reaction force determine the runner's accerleration
Characterizes a body's "quality of motion", in generaly the larger the body and the faster it is moving, the greater its momentum
Linear momentum
Is the product of mass (m) or velocity; Increasing either a body's size (mass) or velocity increases its linear momentum
Angular momentum
Is the product of moment of inertia (I, *capital i; where I is the resistance to a change in a body's state of angular motion) and angular velocity (w)
Inertia depends on 2 factors:
1. Body mass
2. The distribution of the mass relative to the axis of rotation
Transfer of momentum
Is the mechanism by which momentum is transferred from one body to another
The product of force (F) multiplied by time (t); momentum can be changed (increased or decreased) by impulse. Thus, increasing the amount of applied force or the time of force application results in a greater change in momentum
Difference between "Moment" and "Torque"
Used interchangeably but there is a technical difference. Moment typically refers to the rotational or bending action of a force, while Torque refers to the twisting action of a force.
Joint motions are produced and controlled by:
Net effect of internal (muscle) torques and external torques created by forces such as gravity
Applied Force (Effort force)
Produced by active muscle
Resistance force (Load)
Produced by weight being lifted (gravity) or another external force being applied (friction, elastic band)
2 types of mechanical energy:
1. Kinetic energy (energy in motion)
2. Potential energy (energy of position or deformation)
2 types of kinetic energy:
1. Linear kinetic energy
2. Angular kinetic energy
2 types of potential energy:
1. Gravitational potential energy– measures the potential to perform mechanical work as a function of a body's height above a reference level (usually the ground)
2. Deformational (also strain) energy– energy stored within a body when it is deformed (stretched, compressed, bent, twisted)
Muscle tissue has 4 characteristics:
1. Excitability– ability to respond to a stimulus
2. Contractility– ability to generate a pulling force (also called tension)
3. Extensibility– ability to lengthen, or stretch
4. Elasticity– ability to return to its original length and shape when force is removed
Contractile components
Muscle tissue that is composed of structural elements that can generate force
Noncontractile components
Structures (like connective tissue) that cannot produce force
Force produced by the musculotendinous unit is determined, by the muscles length; combined forces of the contractile and noncontractile components
Functional range
Limit to the length a muscle can attain, dictated by the range of motion of the joints the muscle crosses
Represents the maximal force the muscle can produce at the given velocity when the muscle is maximally activated. Concentrically faster muscle velocities w/ lower force production, Isometrically more force produced than at any concentric speed, Eccentrically generate more force than concentric an isometric an appear less affected by movement speed
Specific tension
The force of contraction per unit area
Rate of force development
Time rate of change of force, or the ratio of the change in force over the change in time; can be improved with resistance exercise
The ability to exert force
Planes of movement:
Frontal, Sagittal, Transverse
Free Weights
Any object that has a fixed mass and no constraints on its motion (barbells, dumbbells, medicine balls)
*constant–resistance device
Fixed Resistance Machines
Contrains the motion of the resistance in some way, can be linear (leg press or smith machine) or angular (knee extension or knee curl machine), but the external resistance will not change.
*constant–resistance device
Constraint–Resistance Devices
A constant resistive force that does not change throughout the range of motion (free weights and fixed resistance machines)
Variable–Resistance Devices
A variable resistive force that will increase or decrease (or both) throughout the range of motion (variable resistance machines, elastic bands, tubes, and chains)
Variable Resistance Machines
Have a resistance that changes throughout the range of motion; any machine that loads weight plates to the end of the lever varies its resistance due to the changing of the moment arm
*variable–resistance device
Elastic Resistance
The resistance force is not constant but increases proportionally with the distance the material is stretched beyond its resting length, thus resistance is minimal at the beginning of the exercise and increases as the movement is performed. (Hooke's law)
*variable–resistance device
With chains attached to the bar (like during squats or bench press) most of the chain's weight is on the floor at bottom of the lift. As the bar rises, more of the chain lifts off the floor, and greater resistance is provided as the lift progresses.
*variable resistance device
Accomodating–Resistance Device
Force will vary depending on the force applied to it; provide resistance that is proportional to the client's effort. (Include isokinetic dynamometers, flywheels, and fluid resistance)
Isokinetic Dynamometers
Designed to control movement speed to provide constant angular velocity.

*Accomodating–Resistance Device
Resistance is provided by the rotating disk with a mass located some distance away from the disk's axis of rotation. Resistance increases as its angular acceleration increases, at the end of the exercise the exerciser must resist it using eccentric muscle actions
*Accomodating–Resistance Device
Fluid Resistance

Hydraulic and pneumatic devices that use some sort of piston to push or pull a fluid through a cylinder and movements performed under water have similar biomechanical properties; resistance force is proportional to the product of the fluid density.
*Accomodating–Resistance Device

Endocrine Glads
Hormones that are blood–borne molecules that produced in glands; two primary types of hormones, (1) protein and peptide hormones (growth hormones & insulin) and (2) steroid hormones (testosterone and estrogen)
Cocontraction (coactivation)
Refers to the simultaneous activation of an agonist and an antagonist during a motor task
Refers to the physiological and performance adaptations that occur when an individual ceases an exercise training program
Production and release of glycogen and insulin
Only substance released from the adrenal cortex that plays a direct role in metabolism. Responsible for stimulating conversion of proteins used by aerobic and glycolysis systems, as well as for the maintenance of normal blood sugar levels; also promotes use of fats
Catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinepherine)
"Flight or fight response hormones" that are released from the adrenal medulla when it is acted upon by the sympathetic nervous system during stressful situations.
Two "theorized" types of Overtraining:
The predominance of either the (1) sympathetic or the (2) parasympathetic nervous systems. Aerobic endurance overtraining results predominantly from an excessive volume overload (parasympathetic dominant), anaerobic or resistance overtraining (sympathetic dominant) primarily results from excessive high–intensity overload
Medical nutrition therapy
Referral to a nutrition professional is indicated when the client has a disease state (diabetes, heart disease, gastrointestinal disease, eating disorders, osteoporosis, elevated cholesterol, etc.) that is affected by nutrition. Falls under the scope of practice of a licensed nutritionist, dietitian, or registered dietitian (RD)
MyPlate food groups consist of:
MyPlate 3 main goals:
(1. Balancing Calories; Enjoy your food, eat less. Avoid oversized portions (2. Foods to Increase; Half your plate fruits an vegetables, half your grains whole grains, switch to fat free or low fat milk (3. Foods to Reduce; Watch sodium intake, drink water
Kilocalorie (kcal)
What energy is commonly measured in. Equates to the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius (or 2.2 pounds of water 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit); aka calorie
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
The intake that meets the nutrient needs of almost all (97% to 98%) healthy individuals in a specific age and sex group
Adequate Intake
Goal intake when suficiet scientific information is unavailable to estimate the RDA
Estimated Average Requirement
The intake that meets the estimated nutrient need of half the individuals in a specific group
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
Maximum intake that is unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects in almost all healthy individuals in a group
"Common folklore" is 64 oucnes (1.9L) to 2 gallons (7.5L). Sedetary adults range from 1.5 to 2.7 quarts (1.4–2.6L). Before exercise: 5 to 7ml of fluid per kilogram of body weight. During exercise: 1.9 quarts (1.8L) per hour. After exercise: 20 to 24 ounces (600 to 700ml) for every pound lost.
Fluid Intelligence
Abstract reasoning and proglem solving
Crystallized intelligence
Accumulated factual knowledge and the ability to recognize words and recall facts
Task involved
Clients who gauge their performance improvement on the basis of previous ability level
"Practical Principles for Effective Goal Setting"
(1. Make goals specific, measurable, and observable (2. Clearly indentify time constraints (3. Use moderately difficult goals (4. Record goals and monitor progress (5. Diversify process, performance, and outcomes (6. Set short–range goals to achieve long–range goals (7. Make sure goals are internalized –clients should participate or set their own
Action oriented
Time bount
Positive reinforcement
"Gives" something to the client in response to behavior. Example is social apporval or congratulations given for completing a workout.
Negative reinforcement
"Takes away" something from the client. Example is relieving the client of a disliked chore, such as mopping accumulated sweat from the floor around the exercise equipment because of successful completion of the workout
Positive punishment
Implies presentation of something aversive such as disapproval. Example is criticism of a client for poor exercise technique.
Negative punishment
Implies removal of something in order to decrease the operant. Example is removal of a privilege because of poor exercise technique or failure to complete an exercise goal.
Amotivation (self determination continuum)
The client has a total lack of intrinsic or extrinsic motivation
External regulation (self determination continuum)
The client engages in behavior to avoid punishment, not for personal satisfaction
Introjected regulation (self determination continuum)
The client views exercise and training behavior as a means to a valued end (ex: getting into correct starting position for resistance training exercise is partly internalized to please the personal trainer)
Identified regulation (self determination continuum)
The client accepts the personal trainer's intructions as beneficial but primarily follows the leadership of the personal trainer instead of initiating exercise behavior
Integrated regulation (self determination continuum)
The client personally values exercise behavior, internalizes it, and freely engages in it; the client and the personal trainer agree on the goals for the client
Precontemplation (stage of readiness)
The person does not intend to increase physical activity and is not thinking about becoming physically active
Contemplation (stage of readiness)
The person intends to increase physical activity and is giving it a thought now and then, but is not yet physically active
Preparation (stage of readiness)
The person is engaging in some activity, accumulating in at least 30 minutes of moderate–intensity physical activity at least one day per week, but not on most days of the week
Action (stage of readiness)
The person is accumulating at least 30 minutes of moderate–intensity physical activity on five or more days of the week, but has done so for less than six months
Maintenance (stage of readiness)
The person is accumulating at least 30 minutes of moderate–intensity physcial activity on five or more days of the weeks, and has been doing so for six months or more
4 types of influences affect/build self efficacy:
1. Performance accomplishments
2. Modeling effects
3. Verbal persuasion
4. Physiological arousal or activity
Personal Trainers "MATER" =
MOTIVATE– performance and compliance
ASSESS– health status
TRAIN– clients safely & effectively to meet individuals objectives
EDUCATE– clients to be informed consumers
REFER– clients to health care professionals when necessary
Positive risk factor
"An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, an environmental exposure or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with health related conditions considered important to prevent"
Intrarater reliability
In order for a test to be reliable, the person conducting the test must be consistent in his or her administration of it
Face validity
The test appears to test what it is supposed to test
Content validity
Indicates that an expert has determined that a test covers all topics or abilities that is should
Construct validity
Theoretical concept meaning that a test is able to differentiate between performance abilities
General Fitness
Resting tests (resting heart rate, blood pressure, height, weight, body comp). Nonfatiguing tests (flexibility, balance). Muscular strength tests. Local muscular endurance tests (YMCA bench press test, partial curl up test). Submaximal aerobic capacity tests (step test, Rockport walking test, Astrand–Ryhming cycle ergometer test, 1.5 mile run, 12–min run/walk)
Athletic Performance
Resting tests (resting heart rate, blood pressure, height, weight, body comp). Nonfatiguing tests (flexibility, vertical jump). Agility tests (T–test). Maximum power & strength tests (3RM power clean, 1RM bench press). Sprint tests (40yd sprint). Local muscular endurance tests (1min sit up test, push–up test). Anaerobic capacity tests (300yd shuttle run). Maximal or submaximal aerobic capacity tests (max treadmill test, 1.5mile run, YMCA cycle ergometer test
Vital Sign tests
1. Heart Rate (average 60–80(sometimes 100) beats/min *females 7–10 beat/min greater, slower than 60 beats/min is bradycardia, higher than 100 beats/min is tachycardia; use of palpation*finger tips, auscultation*stethoscope, heart rate monitor. 2. Blood Pressure; mercury or aneroid sphymomanometer, air bladder–containing cuff, stethoscope
Body Composition tests
Anthropometry, BMI, Height, Weight, Skinfolds (chest, triceps, abdomen, thigh, midaxilla, subscapula, suprailium, medial calf), Bioelectrical impedance anaylsis and Near–infrared interactance, Waist–to–Hip Girth Ratio
Cardiovascular Endurance tests
Cycle Ergometer Testing, YMCA Cycle Ergometer Test (85% max HR 3min stages), Astrand–Ryhming Cycle Ergometer Test (single stage test, total duration 6min), YMCA step test (3min), 12min run/walk, Rockport walking test (ages 18–69), 1mile run (children 6–17 years)
Muscular Strength tests
1–Repetition Maximum Bench Press, 1–Repetition Maximum Leg Press
Muscular Endurance tests
YMCA Bench Press test, Partial Curl–Up test, Prone Double Straight–Leg Raise test
Flexibility tests
Sit and Reach test
5 point body contact position (supine)
1. Back of the head
2. Upper back and rear shoulders
3. Lower back and buttocks
4. Right foot
5. Left foot
5 point body contact position (prone)
1. Chin (or one cheek if the head is turned to the side)
2. Chest and stomach
3. Hips and front of the thighs
4. Right hand
5. Left hand
Safe participation variables:
1. Proper hydration
2. Appropriate clothing and foot–wear
3. Warm–up and cool–down
4. Prescription of exercise frequency, intensity, an duration
5. Proper breathing techniques
6. Exercise program variation
Muscular Endurance goals
More repetitions (>10 reps per set) with varying numbers of sets depending on training status
Hypertrophy goals
Higher training volume (6–12 reps) with moderate to high loads (67–85% 1RM) depeding on training status
Muscular strength goals
Core exercises– 6 or fewer reps with multiple sets (3 or more) per exercise. Assistance exercises– 8 or more reps with one to three sets
Power exercis goals
(Not with untrained or novice clients) Intermediate clients– 1 to 3 sets of three to six reps. Advanced clients– 3 to 6 sets of one to six reps
Muscular endurance *rest goals
Short rest interval, <30 seconds for circuit training with exercises using dissimilar muscle groups, 3mins rest with exercises using similar muscle groups
Muscular hypertrophy *rest goals
Short to moderate ranging from 30 sec to 1.5 mins. Longer rest intervals with multijoint large–muscle exercises (because high metabolic demands)
Muscular power *rest goals
Longer rest intervals from 2–5 mins between max–effort sets

Muscular strength *rest goals

Longer rest intervals for exercises targeting strength development. Especially with lower body or whole–body exercises. Recommendations between 2–5 minutes

1 Repetition maximum (1RM)

Greatest amount of weight that can be lifted with proper technique for only 1 repetition

2 for 2 rule

A guideline that can be used to increase the load when two or more repetitions above the repetition goal are completed in the final set of an exercise for two consecutive training sessions


An increase in velocity

Action potential

Temporary change (reversal) in the electrical charge of a muscle or nerve cell when it is stimulated


One of the two primary myofilaments; binds with myosin to cause a muscle action

Adenosinetriphosphate (ATP)

The universal energy carrying molecule manufactured in all living cells as a means of capturing and storing energy

Adenosinetriphoshatase (ATPase)

An enzyme that hydrolizes or breaks down, ATP and causes the release of energy

Aerboic capacity

Highest capacity for oxygen consumption or utilization by the body during maximal physical exertion. AKA: maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), maximal aerobic power, maximal oxygen consumption, and functional capacity

Age predicted maximal heart rate (APMHR)

The estimated maximum heart rate as influenced by age

220 minus age


Muscle that is shortening to perform a concentric action

Alpha Blocker

A duge that opposes the excitatory effects of norephinephrine released from sympathetic nerve endings at alpha-receptors and that causes vasodilation and decreases in blood pressure

Alernated grip

Grip in which one hand is pronated and the other hand is supinated


A loss of means for at least three consecutive menstrual cycles

Amortization phase

The time between the eccentric and concentric phase


Reffering to the synthesis of larger molecules from smaller molecules

Anatomical position

Position in which a person stands erect with arms down at the sides and palms forward


A pain in the chest related to reduced coronary circulation that may or may not involve heart or artery disease

Angular Motion

Motion in which a body rotates about an axis

Angular velocity

An objects rotational speed


Muscle, typically, anatomically opposite to the agonist, that can stop or slow down a muscle action caused by the agonist


The science of measurement applied to the human body; generally includes measurements of height, weight, and selected body girths

Aortic Stenosis

Narrowing of the Aorta

Appendicular Skeleton

Skeletal subdivision that consists of the shoulder girdle, arms, legs and pelvis

Arteriovenous Oxygen Difference (a-vO2 difference)

The difference in the oxygen content of arterial blood versus venous blood expressed in milliliters of oxygen per 100 milliliters of oxygen per 100 milliliters of blood

Assistance Exercises

Exercises that involve movement at only one primary joint and recruit a smaller muscle group or only one large muscle group or area

Assumption of Risk

A defense for the personal trainer whereby the client knows that there are inherent risks with participation in an activity but still voluntarily decides to participate


A progressive degenerative process through which the interior lining of the arterial walls becomes hardened and inelastic


An upper chamber of the heart that functions to pump blood to the lower chamber of the heart (ventricle)


To listen to the sounds of the body by using a stethoscope

Automated External Defibrillator (AED)

A portable device that indentifies heart rhytms; uses audio or visual prompts or both, to direct the correct response; and delivers the appropriate shock only when needed

Autonomic Dysreflexia

Manifestation of a spinal cord injury that disrupts normal regulation of arterial blood pressure

Axial skeleton

Skelton subdivision that consists of the skull, vertebral column, and thorax (rib cage)

Axis of rotation

Imaginary line about which joint rotation occurs

Ballistic stretching

A rapid, jerky movement in which the body part is put into motion and momentum carries it through the range of motion unit the muscles are stretched to the limits

Beta blocker

A druge that opposes the excitatory effects of norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerve endings at beta-receptors; treatment for angina, hypertension, arrhythmia, and migraine

Beta Oxidation

Series of reactions that modify fatty acids into acetyl-CoA, which can then enter the Krebs cycle to produce ATP

Bioelectrical impedance Analysis (BIA)

A body composition test that measures the amount of impedance or resistance to a small, painless electrical current


The energy pathways of metabolism

Body weight exercises

Resistance training in which the client uses his/her own body weight as the form of resistance


A resting heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute

Breach of Duty

Conduct of a personal trainer that is not consistent with the standard of care

Calcium channel blocker

Calcium antagonist that acts directly on the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels to cause vasodilation; for the treatment of angina and hypertension

Cardiac Output (Q)

The quantity of blood pumped by the heart per minute expressed in liters or milliliters (SV x HR) or (Stroke volume times Heart rate)


The breakdwon of larger molecules into smaller molecules

Cerebral Palsy

A group of chronic musculoskeletal deficits causing impaired body movement and muscle coordination

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

A condition or dysfunction of the pulmonary system (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma)

Civil system

The judicial system that applies to one's private rights and therefore to personal responsibilities or obligations that individuals must recognize and observe when dealing with others

Closed grip

A grip in which the thumb is wrapped around the bar so that the bar is fully held in the palm of the hand

Closed kinetic chain

Referring to a movement during which the most distal body parts motion is significantly restricted or fixed; often occurs with lower (or upper) body movements with the feet (or hands) on the floor

Complex training

A combination of resistance and plyometric training

Compound set

Two different exercises for the same primary muscle group that are completed in succession without an intervening rest period

Concentric Muscle Action

A muscle action in which the muscle is able to overcome the resistance, leading to muscle shortening


A neural process that cannot be directly observed but must be indirectly inferred through the observation of behavior


A legally binding promise or performance given in exchange for another promise or performance supported by adequate consideration, something of value


An activity or practice that is inadvisable or prohibited because of a given injury

Core exercise

Exercise that invlove movement at two or more primary joints and recruit one or more large muslce groups or areas

Cori cycle

A (gluconeogenisis) gluconeogenic process, taking place in the liver, in which lactate is converted to glucose

Coronary artery disease (CAD)

A condition or dysfuntion of the cardiovascular system (atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, angina)

Coronary risk factor

A charactersistic, trait, or behavior that affects the probability of developing cardiovascular disease

Criterion-Referenced standard

A method to compare data that involves a combination of normative data and experts judgement to identify a specific level of achievement

Cross training

A method of combining several exercise modes within one exercise program

Curvilinear Motion

Motion along a curved line


Economic or noneconomic losses due to an injury; when there is a breach of contract, the amount of money owed by the breaching party


A decrease in velocity


The person being sued or accused in the court of law

Diastolic blood pressure

The pressure exerted against the arterial walls between beats when no blood is ejected from the heart or through the vessels (diastole)

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)

Current recommendations for the intake of vitamins and minerals (replaced the recommended dietary allowances)


Measure of the length of time an exercise session lasts

Duty of care

Obligation to demonstrate an appropriate standard of care

Dynamic stretching

Similar to ballistic stretching in that it utilizes speed of movement, but dynamic stretching avoids bouncing and includes movement specific to a sport or movement pattern


Abnormal lipid (fat) levels in the blood, lipoprotein composition, or both

Dystonic spasm

Brief recurring muscle contractions that result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal posture

Eccentric muscle action

Action that occurs when a muscle cannot develop sufficient tension and is overcome by an external load, thus progressively lengthens


Amount of mechanical output produced for a given metabolic input


The ability of a muscle fiber to return to original resting length after a passive stretch

Electron transport chain (ETC)

A series of oxidative reactions that rephosphorylate Adenosinediphosphate (ADP) to Adenosinetriphosphate (ATP)

End diastolic volume

The volume of blood from the left atrium that is available to be pumped by the left ventricle


The connective tissure encasing individual muscle fibers


Two or more unprovoked, recurring seizures


The connective tissue encasing the entire muscle body

Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)

The oxygen uptake above resting values used to restore the body to the preexercise condition; AKA: Oxygen debt

False grip

A grip in which the thumb is not wrapped around the bar but instead next to the index finger; AKA: Open grip

Fascicle / Fasciculus

Bundle of muscle fibers (plural of fasciculus is faciculi)


The knowledge of results or awareness of success or failure

Fick equation

Q = VO2 / a-vO2 difference

Field test

An assessment that is performed away from the laboratory and does not require extensive training or expensive equipment

First class lever

A lever for which the applied and resistive forces act on opposite sides of the fulcrum (bench press)

Five-point body contact position

Proper body positioning to maximize stability and spinal support in supine and seated exercises


The ability of a joint to move through an optimum range of motion (ROM)

Fluid ball

The abdominal fluids and tissue that are kept under pressure by the diaphragm and abdominal muscles to support the vertebral column from the inside out


Mechanical action applied to a body that tends to produce acceleration

Forced repetitions

Repetitions that are successfully completed with assistance from a spotter

Forced vital capacity

The volume of air moved that results from maximal inspiration and maximal expiration

Frank-Starling mechanism

The mechanism by which the stroke volume of the heart increases proportionally to the volume of blood filling the heart (the end-diastolic volume)

Freestyle (front crawl)

A swimming stroke with a straight and prone body position, and over hand arm motion, and a flutter kick


The number of workouts performed in a given time period (typically one week)


The resistance to motion of two objects or surfaces that touch

Frontal plane

A vertical plane that divides the body or organs into front and back portions


The point about which a lever points

Functional Anatomy

The relation between body structures and their function, particularly with respect to movement

Functional Capacity

Highest capacity for oxygen consumption or utiliztion by the body during maximal physical exertion; AKA: aerobic capacity, maximal aerobic power, maximal oxygen consumption, VO2 max

General warm up

A type of warm up that involves performing basic activities requiring movement of the major muscle groups (example: jogging, cycling, or jump rope)

Gestational Diabetes mellitus

The onset of a diabetes condition that occurs only during pregnancy


The formation of glucose from lactate and noncarbohydrate sources


The stored from of glucose


The breakdown of glycogen


Series of reactions used to produce ATP that utilizes only glucose or glycogen as the energy source

Goal repetitions

The number of repetitions a client is assigned to perform for an exercise

Goal setting

Strategy for increasing the level of participation or causing a behavioral change

Golgi tendon organ

Sensory organ lying within the tendons of the musculotendinous region that recognizes change in tension in the muscle